Soft paternalism supports the criminalisation of drug usage because the action and effects of drug usage fulfils the two necessary elements which justify state interference according to soft paternalism. The criminalisation of drug usage represents a mechanism through which the state justifiably limits the liberty of individuals on the basis that a person’s “decision making capacity is compromised by cognitive and emotional deficiencies” (Wertheimer 2002, 50) as a result of a drug usage. This essay will discuss how drug usage extensively compromises the mental faculties and inherent rationality of human beings to the extent that the action of taking drugs may no longer be considered voluntary or validly consented to. Furthermore the idea that
Some accused the new Justice Department agency of terrorizing innocent individuals, abuse of power, and a lack of oversight and accountability. The agency was officially dismantled in 1973, but in reality, it just consolidated with other agencies and became the Drug Enforcement Administration. Nixon’s new enforcement policy would disproportionately target communities of color resulting in what would become the beginning of a policy of mass-incarceration of blacks, Latinos and America’s poor. Since the 70’s racial injustices have been stemming from the war on drugs and these injustices and racial inequalities have not only been overlooked by some previous presidential administrations but were at times even aggravated by
Due to the lack of control, the DEA had over Ecstasy is what drove them to make it illegal. The DEA finally cracked down on MDMA and started putting people in jail. When MDMA was legal scare tactics where different, all they could do was use scare tactics to keep young adults away from it by emphasizing the side effects of MDMA. This drug has the reputation of being a benign and fun drug, but I think since this drug got out of hand to the point that the government had to step in and take control of the situation. This, in my opinion, was the right thing to do in order to decrease the supply and demand of the drug.
(NIDA, n.d.). Substance abuse causes physical and mental damage and complications can remain years after recovery. The severity of long-term effects depends on the body’s reaction to the drugs and the type of drug ingested. Addiction does not have to stem from drug use, but even casual use can damage the user. The most commonly abused drugs include tobacco, marijuana, and alcohol although less abused drugs such as stimulants, hallucinogens and opiates can have a greater financial cost.
The War on Drugs that the government has been fighting for almost two centuries has been a failure. The War on Drugs has made criminal organizations, violence around the world, and drugs themselves worse. The War on Drugs has negatively affected the lives of millions of people around the world as it has led to massive incarceration in the United States; corruption, political destabilization, and violence in Latin America, Asia, and Africa; to systemic human rights abuses across the world. Prohibition of certain drugs has actually led to higher rate of violence and murders all around the world. Which drugs are legal and illegal is not really based on any specific scientific assessment of the relative risk of the drugs, but it has everything
Moral reasoning and health outcomes were the most essential deterrent to participants. Theory of Reasoned Action Theory of reasoned action theory has been used in drug testing literature to draw connections from attitude to the behavioral intention then to behavior. In fact, most of the literature has focused on attitude leading to the behavioral intentions (Diacin et al, 2003; Strelan&Boeckmann, 2006).
In the United states, drug users have both the resources to buy drugs and what seems to be unfettered access to get whatever they want. This is a dangerous combination of factors that effects the country as a whole. Years ago, it was the menace
The most important lesson I learned was how destructive drug addiction can be on an individual’s life. An example of this is from an Intervention episode about Wes and Lise. It was heartbreaking to watch their lives slowly be dominated by illegal drugs. This was exacerbated by the fact that Lise was aware how drugs were taking control of her life and knew that it was damaging to their children’s lives. This helped me humanize drug addicts because in society, drug addicts are miscreants who care not for the livelihoods of other people; only for drugs.
The answer is obvious: crime. But why does the United States have such a higher rate of incarceration compared to other countries? According to an article done in TheEconomist.com, one of the biggest causes of incarceration is the harsh drug penalties. State legislatures began passing laws that meted out the mandatory-minimum sentences for drug-related crimes, but this still did not make that big of a difference. In fact, according to a chart done by Prospect.org, the majority (52%) of inmates in federal prison are there because of drug related victims.
As explained by Murphy-Jallali (2017), the Hypodermic or ‘effects’ model relates directly to what exactly it is that media do to their audiences. The audience in this case is seen to be almost hypnotized by the media, which is where the power lies. This model assumes that the media effects the audience negatively, which stems from a position of moral panic. The effects model ultimately portrays the media in a negative light. It portrays the media as a predominantly unfavourable entity which either encourages inactivity and laziness, or encourages unsavoury behaviour such as violence and sex.
Medications need to be monitored and used correctly to ensure the health of the individual. If a person is on the verge of depression because of their anxiety, their best hope is a prescription drug. If the drug is abused the outcome would be what they originally had felt, most common depression. Suicidal thoughts would begin to take place, all because the medication had not been effective as the user didn’t affectively take the drug as ordered. If a death was to occur the medication would most likely not be to blame but the way the user had been taking the medication and not communication with their
According to the Office of National Drug Control Policy, in 2007, the economic costs of drug abuse in the United States was $193 billion (How Illicit Drug Abuse). Of these costs, $120 billion is in lost productivity, due to labor participation costs, participation abuse treatment, incarceration, and premature death. Another $11 billion was in total healthcare costs. $61 billion was for criminal justice costs due to criminal investigation, prosecution, incarceration, and victim costs. Even though these estimates and costs may make drug trafficking appear to do more harm than good, that is not exactly the case in Mexico or many Latin American countries.
The song “Candles in the Sun” performed by R&B artist Miguel, discussed about the social issue on drug usages. Miguel referred to “babies on crack” as an ironic statement, to exemplify how younger generations were being exposed to drugs at an early age. Many younger generations who were being exposed to drugs, often have health issues or even die at a young age. Therefore, Miguel stated “may we all live long”, to addressed how the social issue on the usage of drugs can impact a person well being. Drug usages at an early age impacts on American culture by bringing negativity into America’s society and to the rising cause of death, causing other people lives rather then themselves too.
The initial thinking behind the creation of minimum mandatory sentences was created by congress to aim in the capture and imprisonment of high level drug traffickers, and deter others from entering into drug trafficking or using illegal substances, which would create a safer society. However, the nation prison has been expanded with low level street drug dealers, and the accessibility to illegal drugs is more obtainable then before the enactment of the mandatory sentencing act. In fact, the number of drug offenders in federal prisons has increased 21 times since 1980. Contrary to what congress has believed in the past about the dangers of crack cocaine compared to that in powder form has been proven to be untrue, but little has been done to reduce the number of prisons affected by that belief.
America's prisons are overpopulated and the population is growing each year with increased drug activities. Low level drug offenders, comprised of 39 percent of the overall prison population. In the article " Department of Justice low-level drug offenders: a defense perspective" defines low-level drug offender as one who has been convicted drug trafficking offense but has no prior commitment, history of violence, known involvement of sophisticated criminal activity, significant "public risk factor," and pending detainer (Katz 28) . This group isn't hardened criminals and don't live a life of crime; rather they are motivated by profit. They are less likely to return to prison when compared to hardened criminals.