Smith and Kosslyn (2007) define memory as a set of representations and processes by which information is encoded, consolidated, and retrieved. (p. 538). Models have been developed to show processes such as short-term storage that allows for problem solving and for how memory is processed from sensory input to long-term storage. Although, there are many representations of these types of processes, only a few will be discussed in this paper. As credit is due to all the theories and tasks that have been completed to give evidence that these processes do exist; at the present day moment experts still are not sure exactly how our brain works. Experiments done to study the processes built evidence neurologically that parts of the memory systems do show activity in parts of the brain. Making many of these modalities and processes valid and reliable when considering the main sections of memory. Consider the two main sections of memory: short term memory and long-term memory. Short-term memory and long-term memory both have been examined through machinery such as a Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan to prove that these processes do show through brain activity thus increasing our understanding of memory. Let us begin by further discussing long-term memory then short-term memory before attempting the contrivance of working
Nursing practice requires both critical thinking and clinical reasoning. Critical thinking is the process of deliberate higher level thinking to define a patient’s problem, examine the evidence-based practice in caring for the patient’s, and make options in the delivery of optimal care. Critical thinking involves the demarcation of statements of fact, judgment, and opinion. The progression of critical thinking requires the nurse to think imaginatively, use reflection, and engage in logical thinking (Alfaro-LeFevre, 2013). Critical thinking is a vital skill needed for the recognition of patient’s problems and the execution of interventions to endorse effectual care outcomes (Bittencourt & Crossetti, 2012).
There are five different types of learning theories, behaviorism, cognitivism, humanism, social learning, or constructivism. All of them propose various ways through which learning is realized. However, there is no single set of learning theory, which if followed to the latter can grant a tutor a perfect outcome in the classroom. For many years, the study of learning has resulted in heated debates. It has been at the center of educational psychology. Even though psychologists agree on the significance of learning as a topic of study, they often fail to agree on the mechanics of how the process of learning occurs. Shunk et al. (2012), define learning as "the process of acquiring a relatively permanent change in understanding, attitude, knowledge, information, ability, and skill is
More than once I would ask for further details on a topic such as, “How does high blood sugar delay wound healing?” only to be told that it was not necessary to learn such details. However, I felt an innate need to know and understand. I soon learned that nursing is a field in and of itself, distinct from medicine. The nursing model views illness as a series of patient responses which can be modified using nursing interventions. The “how and why” of illnesses is not as relevant. I learned which medications would be ordered and how to administer them but not how they worked or what the nuances for choosing one over the other were for a certain patient. Nursing confirmed my inclination that serving others in a healthcare setting was the right pathway for me, but it was the beginning of when I felt as if I were consistently missing a piece of the puzzle in the patient care I yearned to provide. I started looking more towards physicians and observing their method of treatment and
Human memory is becoming a worldwide investigation in the fields of psychology. Atkinson-Shiffrin model suggests long term and short term memory. The model believes that long term memory is caused by several rehearsals such maintenance rehearsal, elaborative rehearsal, and distinctiveness. Similarly levels of processing—depth of processing, which involves shallow processing and deep processing—involve processes that influence memory. However, unlike Atkinson-Shiffrin model, levels of processing do not distinguish memory into short term and long term. The theory believes that elaborative rehearsal, or deep processing, improves long term memory. Craik and Lockhart (1972) proposed that deep level of processing led to longer lasting memory while
Diagnostic reasoning is a process of generating and testing hypotheses (Stolper et al., 2011), which is done by transforming medical data into an actionable diagnosis that is important for the functioning of a nurse practitioner (Rajkomar & Dhaliwal, 2011). According to Pelaccia, Triby, and Charlin (2011), clinical reasoning refers to ‘the cognitive process that is necessary to evaluate and manage a patient 's medical problem’. That helps the clinician to make diagnoses and decisions. The diagnostic reasoning process is done by two cognitive systems, the first is called an intuitive system that occurs automatically based on the past experiences and knowledge (Rajkomar & Dhaliwal, 2011). The second system is explained as analytical, in which
A dynamic strategy for teaching students the skills to think critically is the concept map (a cognitive tool that encourages learners to process information deeply in order to understand study material). This study explores the development of critical thinking among nursing students in a required pathophysiology and pharmacology course during the first year of a Bachelor of Science in Nursing in response to concept mapping as an interventional strategy, using the Health Education Systems, Incorporated critical thinking test. (Facione, 2013) Students in the concept mapping group performed much better on the Health Education Systems, Incorporated than students in the control group. It is recommended that deans, program directors, and nursing faculties evaluate their curricula to integrate concept map teaching strategies in courses in order to develop critical thinking abilities in their students. Critical thinking is a complex reasoning process largely defined as the use of purposeful, shrewd judgment that involves the development and effective exploitation of multiple dimensions of cognition to interpret and analyze a situation and arrive at and act on a suitable conclusion or solution (Facione, 2013). Thus, CT involves higher-order reasoning and evaluation (Facione, 2013). Expanded nursing roles have
It is a method of critical thinking, helps the students develop strategy to find specific patient condition. Upon using this technique will help the nursing students to prioritize, reason and link the patient symptoms for effective nursing management. It is as a learning strategy developed in the nursing in 1970’s
The articles stated that there are seven steps in the process, beginning with step zero, which states that the nurse must have a “spirit of inquiry” in order to determine that there is a need for an intervening question. This is necessary, because nurses become complacent with outdated methods
Nurses need to use their critical thinking skills to apply models ad grant theories into their client’s health problem (Kenny, 2013). According to Kenny, as an advanced practice nurse clinical decision needs to be made according to complex reasoning and critical thinking and the ability to apply theoretical knowledge
Working memory is one of the models that describe how memory processes information. Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch made this model in 1974 to show that the Short Term Memory(STM) rather complex; the model was derived from the multi store model produced by Atkinson-Shiffrin 1968. Which suggests the memory has three stores, the sensory, short term and long term. The working memory model consist of four sectors the Central Executive is the main important component which controls the other elements of the model. The model is controlled automatically by stimuli from the environment and also be able to create new strategies when the old ones are insufficient; in addition
1.For this assignment I chose to store into my LTM, the spelling and dictation of numbers in french for my Elementary French I class. The numbers in french are used daily in their lives and range from dealing with things such as money or important dates. I am trying to store the numbers in my LTM because I am planning to minor in French and will most definitely need to know all of them. The French tend to not use commas in their numbers when talking about thousands or millions, instead they use periods in the place of commas or just simply put a space in between the numbers. Depending on the number, writing it out could vary in how long it’s spelled. For example the number 2.856.742 is written out: deux millions
For this assignment, I have selected two theories, cognitive theory and socio-cultural theory, to compare and contrast for further understanding children development and both theories’ implication in current education. Cognitive theory studies how people think, what’s going on within people’s mind. Social-cultural theory studies how the society, the culture, other people or external environment impact individual development. This paper would firstly respectively demonstrate both theories’ basic philosophy, representative persons and their claims. In the part
Clinical reasoning is the process of thinking that guides an occupational therapist clinical practice (Shafaroodi, Kamali, Parvizy, Mehraban, O 'Toole, 2013). Seminal work by Fleming (1991) identifies three areas of the clinical reasoning thought process; procedural, Interactive and conditional (Robertson & Griffiths, 2012). Through my learning style of reader/writer my personal clinical reasoning is drawn strongly from the use of textbooks and research articles. As I transition from a student learning about practice to a new graduate being immersed in practice my natural reasoning process will be to access the literature. This will assist in transforming my procedural reasoning into conditional reasoning with practice (Robertson & Griffiths, 2009). My own personal enjoyment from learning will keep me up to date will the latest practice theory well after I have finished formal education.