TLC, NMR, and IR spectroscopy were used throughout the process to identify ferrocene and acetylferrocene in addition to evaluating the levels of purity. Evidence: The objective of our experiments was to prepare acetylferrocene from ferrocene. The overall reaction was carried out using 6.1 equivalents of liquid acetic anhydride to 1.8 equivalents of phosphoric acid and concluded with an aqueous workup with NaOH. The initial reaction mixture containing ferrocene, acetic anhydride, and phosphate acid was mixed on a hot stir plate. During this period, reflux was observed, and the mixture appeared dark brown in color.
The first and foremost is the oil spillage in the ocean which leads to ocean acidification. This brings a huge threat towards the environment and the marine wildlife. Oil operation in sea bed often requires drilling fluids such as mud which are used to inject into the wellbore to lubricate the drilling bit. These devastating effects of numerous oil spills on the surface of the ocean could bring a long term environmental effect to the coastal areas as well as to the sea bed. Besides, drilling mud which contains toxic substances like benzene, zinc, arsenic, radioactive materials, and other contaminants are used to lubricate drill bits and maintain the pressure in the drill.
Air pollution supports global warming which is a dangerous problem that is getting worse. Besides the effects that offshore drilling has on wildlife it also immensely affects global warming and the gases that are released from the rigs goes into the air that we breathe. Lombardo states, “No matter what personal stance on global warming may be, there is no denying that an offshore drilling rig produces an enormous amount of air pollution that can affect the shorelines” (n. pag.). Not only does do offshore drilling rigs pollute the air but they also pollute the oceans and create a deadly environment for marine life and reefs.
Dioxin is a large group of chemical compounds that are persistent environmental pollutants (POPs), which essentially comprise carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and chlorine atoms with similar structure. The toxicity of different dioxins is determined by amount of chlorine atoms and their positions in the dioxin molecule. To that, the most toxic dioxin has four chlorine atoms in positions 2, 3, 7 and 8, namely 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, which is also usually known as TCDD or generically “dioxin”. The name "dioxins" is often used for the family of structurally and chemically related polychlorinated dibenzo para dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Certain dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with similar toxic
In precipitation process, large volumes of sludge are generated which can present dewatering and disposal problems , as well as re-carbonation of the softened water are needed . Ion-exchange resin have been widely used to remove calcium and magnesium ions due to their many advantages, such as high capacity and fast kinetics [12-14]. However, ion-exchange resins must be regenerated by chemical reagents when they are saturated and the regeneration can cause serious secondary pollution. In large scale, application of resin is expensive . In recent years, various method such as nanofiltration [15, 16], capacitive deionization , electrodialysis , electrochemical treatment  and, adsorption [20, 21] have been widely studied for ions removal from aqueous solution, especially water softening.
Pollution is a large and obvious problem when drilling for oil. Drilling gives off air pollution as well as carbon discharges--this is very bad for the environment. Another con is the possibility of an environmental hazard such as an oil spill. Oil spills can cause harm to people in the area, the environment itself, and marine life (GreenGarage). Along with those problems, due to an oil spill, there is also the increased possibility of a fire, and/or explosion.
cis-4-heptenal, (Z,Z)-3,6-nonadienal, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal) which cause the undesirable odor and taste associated with rancid oil. Further degradation results in tertiary oxidation products such as short-chain free fatty acids and unsaturated fatty esters. The total oxidation is estimated from the peroxide value which quantifies the concentration of the peroxide groups and from the anisidine value which quantifies the concentration of secondary oxidation products. Gas-chromatography coupled with mass-spectrometry are used for more accurate measurement of lipid peroxides and oxidation
The threat of depletion of crude oil resources over the last few decades has generated an increasing interest in practical applications of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) based technologies . FTS is a process to convert synthesis gas (a mixture of CO and H2) to a wide range hydrocarbons that can be used as liquid fuels or base chemicals. The feedstock for the generation of synthesis gas can be natural gas, coal and biomass. Indirect conversion of coal, natural gas and biomass into hydrocarbons can play a major role in solving the world’s current energy problems. The mixture of hydrocarbons produced by FTS is commonly referred to as a synthetic crude oil or syncrude for short .
2.3 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CRUDE OIL The most abundant chemical compounds of petroleum are hydrocarbons which give the petroleum composition its combustible nature. Although the composition of petroleum will contain many trace elements, the key compounds are carbon (93% – 97%), hydrogen (10% - 14%), nitrogen (0.1% - 2%), oxygen (0.1% - 1.5%) and sulphur (0.5% - 6%) with a few trace metals making up a very small percentage of the petroleum composition (Hunt, 1996). 2.4 CLASSIFICATION OF HYDROCARBON The properties of hydrocarbons are classified in terms of its hydrocarbon structure. 2.4.1 ALKANES (PARAFFINS) Alkanes form the basis of petroleum fuels and can be in linear and branched forms. Alkanes are referred to as saturated hydrocarbons which means they only contain single bond between all carbon atoms (MuMurry, 1992).
One of the most important causes of Nile contamination is discharging of industrial facilities (Mohamed et al., 1998). Factory waste contains heavy metals such as, Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) and Copper (Cu), which cause toxicity. In this essay, the discussion will point to Nile contamination as a controversial issue and highlight some health problems which occur as consequences of using polluted water in Egypt. Likewise, the essay will raise some scientific methods to determine the percentage of heavy metal in water supported by example. Then it will suggest some chemical technical solutions to reduce the percentage of heavy metals in Nile and reuse it again for many purposes.