In her book “The New Jim Crow” (2010), Michelle Alexander, a civil rights lawyer and an activist in the civil rights movements, that many people think has long been concluded, argues that the results of prison go well beyond the walls of the facility and can even have a perpetual effect on a person's life. Alexanders exact words on page 142 are “ Once labeled a felon, the badge of inferiority remains with you for the rest of your life, relegating you to a permanent second-class status.” Alexander supports her claim by interviewing people and describing their experiences in prison and their life after prison. She also informs the reader of laws that make it harder for felons to not only get jobs, but also limits their access to housing, and
The practice of segregation in American history was not black and white. Although technically segregation was the separation of the black and white races in American societies, it had a certain ambiguity and complexity that surrounded the practice. This ambiguity and complexity pertained mostly to its origin within American history. Though many people believe segregation was a practice throughout America emerging from Southern slavery in the 19th century, author C. Vann Woodward argues differently in his highly appraised historical work, The Strange Career of Jim Crow. Prior to the publication of The Strange Career of Jim Crow, Woodward worked very closely with individuals involved in the black community.
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Alexander, M. (2012). The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness (Rev. ed.). New York, NY: The New Press. Michelle Alexander in her book, "The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness" argues that law enforcement officials routinely racially profile minorities to deny them socially, politically, and economically as was accustomed in the Jim Crow era.
Blacks were denied the right to vote by grandfather clauses (laws that restricted the right to vote to people whose ancestors had voted before the Civil War), poll taxes (fees charged to poor Blacks), white primaries (only Democrats could vote, only Whites could be Democrats), and literacy tests ("Name all the Vice Presidents and Supreme Court Justices throughout America's history"). Plessy sent this message to southern and border states: Discrimination against Blacks is acceptable. The Jim Crow laws and system of etiquette were undergirded by violence, real and threatened. Blacks who violated Jim Crow norms, for example, drinking from the White water fountain or trying to vote, risked their homes, their
The Jim Crow Laws Jim Crow Laws guaranteed that African Americans were treated as second class citizens without the freedom and liberties promised by our nation’s constitution. Many segregation laws, called The Jim Crow Laws, were already in place throughout the South before the Supreme Court’s Decision in Plessy v Ferguson. Growing up as a Native American was kind of rough on people, they were separated from others. They were only allowed to use certain water fountains, certain bathrooms plus they had to wait for the Americans to get done before they could walk into a grouchy store.
On page thirty-two of The New Jim Crow, Michelle Alexander explicitly states that we transitioned from the death of the "Old Jim Crow" to the birth of "The New One" through: "a criminal justice system that was strategically employed to force African Americans back into a system of extreme repression and control" (32). After the death of slavery / during the Reconstruction Era, African Americans obtained political power and began the long march toward greater social and economic equality. As a result, whites reacted with panic / outrage and conservatives vowed to reverse Reconstruction / "redeem" the South. Through the Ku Klux Klan, resurgent white supremacists fought a terrorist campaign against Reconstruction governments and local leaders.
Annotated Bibliography Alexander, M. (2010). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. New York: The New Press. Alexander opens up on the history of the criminal justice system, disciplinary crime policy and race in the U.S. detailing the ways in which crime policy and mass incarceration have worked together to continue the reduction and defeat of black Americans.
Mississippi in the 1960’s was a historical and life- changing time period for the colored society. Many colored people stood up and fought for equal rights such as Martin Luther King, Jjr., Rosa Parks and Malcolm X, but that was only well known ones. As they were fighting for equal rights, the white society had other strong opinions by going against them and doing things as riots, beating the colored and even shootings. In the early 1960’s the law that established the segregation of the white and colored was called the Jim Ccrow Llaw.
The Jim Crow laws were developed to ensure that Whites retained dominance over blacks after slavery was abolished. The Black Codes were another set of laws that limited the rights of blacks by not allowing them to vote, hold office, serve on a jury, or guarantee an education. Another issue that ultimately is involved in segregation is how blacks were treated; The Ku Klux Klan as an example, lit homes of blacks on fire and lynched targets. Due to the South being divided and poor, this opened the window to
The 'grandfather clause ' was introduced, it stated that any person whose grandfather was a slave didn 't have the right to vote. Through a literacy test they requested that uneducated slaves could vote. " Black codes" were introduced to forbid to black people the right to own a gun. A terrible racist society, called the Ku Klux Klan, was created in 1865 to prevent black people from gaining rights. Eventually, in 1872, the Klan was abolished, but people still belonged to it secretly.
The Life of Jim Crow My cousin, Alva from Cleveland, Ohio would come to visit us during the summer and would tell us about her bus ride experience when coming into the south. The southern border of Ohio was border with the northwest side of Kentucky. Even with both states sharing a border, Jim Crow did not live in Ohio. The bus would leave Cleveland headed south toward the state borders. When the bus arrived at the Kentucky state line just south of the Mason-Dixon line, the driver would request all passengers to get off.
5th Hour Cause and Effect Essay Jim Crow laws The Jim Crow laws were unfair and unjust to all African-Americans by making them unequal. The Jim Crow laws are laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States. It used the term separate but equal, even though conditions for African Americans were always worst than their white counterparts. They could not eat at the same restaurant as white people, they could not used the same restrooms, and they couldn't even use the same drinking fountain.
Slavery is over therefore how can racism still exist? This has been a question posed countlessly in discussions about race. What has proven most difficult is adequately demonstrating how racism continues to thrive and how forms of oppression have manifested. Michelle Alexander, author of The New Jim Crow, argues that slavery has not vanished; it instead has taken new forms that allowed it to flourish in modern society. These forms include mass incarceration and perpetuation of racist policies and societal attitudes that are disguised as color-blindness that ultimately allow the system of oppression to continue.
Jim Crow was not a person, it was a series of laws that imposed legal segregation between white Americans and African Americans in the American South. It promoting the status “Separate but Equal”, but for the African American community that was not the case. African Americans were continuously ridiculed, and were treated as inferiors. Although slavery was abolished in 1865, the legal segregation of white Americans and African Americans was still a continuing controversial subject and was extended for almost a hundred years (abolished in 1964). Remembering Jim Crow: African Americans Tell About Life in the Segregated South is a series of primary accounts of real people who experienced this era first-hand and was edited by William H.Chafe, Raymond