Literature Review on Fundamental Theories IT outsourcing is a topic that not in short of theories. During the last 3 decades, a large amount of empirical work across the last three decades has been guided by three main categories of theories. Those theory groups further developed into different schools which are the base for analyzing the impacts of outsourcing activities. In this research, empirical work based on three most important theories from economic (Transaction cost theory), strategic (Resource- based theory) and social category( relational/ social theories ) were selected for an in depth discussion. No claims are made that any one theory outperforms others. Each represents a particular theoretical orientation and a different form …show more content…
Relational exchange Theory Relational exchange theory is based on sociology. Relational exchange also can be defined as an interactive process, where mutual understandings were developed, commitments were made and finally achieved the desired outcomes. The relational exchange theory believes that the relational norms are the tools for controlling opportunism and create a healthy long-term collaborative framework. The relational exchange arrangement can be viewed as a method to fix the flaws of formal contract, which undermines trust and thereby encourage the opportunistic behavior. The core of the theory is relational norms which can help build up an effective contract governance, and eventually achieve a better vendor- customer relationship. “Many classifications of norms have been proposed, but no one is regarded as dominant. Heide and John (1992) have proposed that relational norms are a higher order construct consisting of three dimensions: flexibility, information exchange, and solidarity” (Solli-Saether & Gottschalk, 2010, p. 32). The critical success factor is to develop and secure common norms between …show more content…
That means all IT functions where benefits for the company are greater than the transactions costs should be outsourced, benefits include increased revenue or reduced costs. In terms of governance mode selection, A market governance mode is preferred when transaction costs are low. Because of economies of scale and scope. Alternatively, an internal governance mode is preferred when transaction costs are high. Organizations can minimize costs by reducing the need for lasting specific IT assets, increase transaction frequency, reduce complexity and uncertainty in IT tasks, improve performance measurements, and reduce dependence on other
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In order to determine the whether an outsourcing activities would have a positive or negative impact an evaluation of the activity should be undergone. This evaluation examines the required coordination, strategic control, and intellectual property characteristics of the activity (Chase & Jacobs, 2013, p.444). The required coordination aspect examines the difficulty to complete the activity with limited interaction due to geographical locations. Outsourcing an activity that would result in a large amount of back-and-forth exchange would not be wise to proceed (Chase & Jacobs, 2013, p.444).
As human a person can’t survive by himself. He need to interact with another person at some point and these interaction leads to development of different relationships. These relationships brakes down to three type dominant, reciprocal and communal. Dominate relationship is where one person have more power than the other, on the other hand communal is where the persons have the same status and shares everything equally. Reciprocal is a give and take relationship where two persons exchanges things with equal value.
ADMS 2511. Management Information System Section Q Raqib Ibrahim Prof. M.Zia ul Haq 215251754 Case Assignment 1 Question A i) Data items: Example of Data in Lululemon case is sales over $1 billion. Data item is a set of description which gives information but does not convey a meaning. ii) Information: As stated above the sales resulted in over $1 billion but actually the 10 percent of those sales were from the Internet store.
Earlier I hinted at using Social Exchange Theory in a very wrong way. Well when I was a senior in high school I was enrolled through Bakersfield Adult School in a Hospital Health class and got the opportunity to work in Central Supply at Kern Medical Center. I loved the job which entailed shopping for all the different departments and delivering the orders as well as sterilizing equipment and delivering equipment when needed. When I graduated early I had the opportunity to finish the year off in the hospital if I chose to, but they were overstaffed and I did not feel like I would get hired on after my year was up
Powell's (1990) analysis of the sociological and economic literatures on exchange suggests that transactions can take place through loose collections of individuals who maintain impersonal and constantly shifting exchange lies, as in markets, or through stable networks of exchange partners who maintain close social relationships. The key distinction between these systems is the structure and quality of exchange ties, because these factors shape expectations and opportunities. Brain Uzzi found that most ties between firms were arms-length (i.e., they were greater in frequency) but they were of much lesser significant than the closer, "special", embedded ties.
L.L. Bean. Inc Item Forecasting and Inventory Management Executive Summary L.L.Bean, Inc. has been a trusted source for quality apparel, reliable outdoor equipment and expert advice for over 100 years. Founded in 1912 by Leon Leonwood Bean, the company began as one-man operation. With L. L.'s firm belief in keeping customers satisfied as a guiding principle, the company eventually grew to a global organization with annual sales of $1.56 billion. The company headquarters are in Freeport, Maine, just down the road from the original store.
Outsourcing is one of the numerous resultants of globalization. Companies from different nations (by and large created nations) outsource their fabricating, marketing, and other back end tasks to other nations. This demonstrates to be cheaper for them as there is a tremendous money distinction between the two nations. Numerous times, companies get to total their work in fair half the cost of what they utilized to pay already.
Outsourcing allows hiring of more qualified individuals to relieve the workload of employees with too many responsibilities. B. The benefits of Outsourcing also extend beyond large companies and to American consumers as well. 1. Another very important benefit that comes from outsourcing is greater access to innovation.
Norms are like the guidelines for how people should act in society. It facilitates collective action problems and helps society get along. Now, what would happen if two people have conflicting views of these norms? The two people, or the dyad, can either settle it on their own or install a third party to solve the problem. The third party adds to the dyad making it a Triad.
In this section the author describes the theories that will support the analysis of information. In order to construct a theoretical background for the study the author chose to describe theories regarding the selection of countries. 5.1 Transaction costs theory Transaction cost theory was developed by Coase (1937) and then re-analyzed by Williamson (1979). The theory explains why companies exist and expand their activities to external environments finding out that ‘’A Transaction cost occurs when a good or service is transferred across a technologically separable interface’’.