Universal Sel Intervention

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There are several methods of delivery for school-based interventions depending on the population that they wish to affect, which can result in varying levels of effectiveness. They can be delivered universally or can be targeted towards students identified as at-risk for particular disorders or problem behaviors (Franklin et al. 2012). In universal interventions, all students participate in the intervention, regardless of their level of risk. For example, Bierman et al. (2010) performed a study on a universal SEL program called Fast Track PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies), which was delivered to all students in the first through the third grade. Teachers received training and continued coaching to integrate SEL into their curriculum…show more content…
Spence and Shortt (2007) assert that universal interventions to prevent depression in children and adolescents, specifically those without more specialized intervention components are ineffective because of their short-term nature and lack of in-depth intervention. In their meta-analysis, Werner-Seider et al. (2017) found that universal depression prevention programs had smaller effect sizes 12-months post-test than more targeted interventions. There was no significant difference in effect sizes in anxiety prevention studies. However, Pössel, Horn, Groen, and Hautzinger (2004) assert that universal depression prevention programs may not show strong effect sizes because of the nature of depressive symptomology. Universal prevention programs target all students, and therefore many students who are participating in the prevention program are not actively depressed at the time of the intervention and may be protected from episodes of depression in the future (Pössel et al., 2004). In comparison, more targeted interventions may show stronger effect sizes because all students identified to receive the intervention have been identified as being at-risk, thus the reduction in their depressive symptoms will be more readily apparent than in universal prevention…show more content…
This method is called Response to Intervention, or RtI, which is a three-tiered intervention with universal supports at tier one, and more targeted supports at tiers two and three (Franklin et al., 2012). Some school-based interventions employ universal supports in tier one, while others use tier two and tier three supports to provide more targeted intervention and prevention services to children who are identified as at-risk. A study by Cheny, Flower, and Templeton (2008) revealed that RtI is an effective method for identifying students at-risk for emotional and behavioral disorders and at preventing these disorders. RtI methods help school officials to identify students who are at-risk for developing disorders early and providing these students with resources to prevent them from

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