What Was The Major Development Of The Marines Amphibious Doctrine During World War II?

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Few historians would disagree about the major developments of the Marines Amphibious Doctrine throughout World War II. During the early 1900s, it was argued that the U.S. Marines was developed specifically to serve as an amphibious-warfare capable group. Early on, their mission was to seize and defend naval bases in safe territory, while accompanied by a following fleet; Nevertheless, they developed their abilities to where they were able to seize and defend sophisticated naval bases in enemy territory after World War II. The Fleet Marine Force -a combined general and special purpose force within the Navy designated for amphibious warfare and defensive maritime employment- along with the Landing Operations Doctrine, U.S. Navy 1938 (Fleet Training …show more content…

After years of revisions, the official doctrine was released in 1938 as Landing Operations Doctrine, U.S. Navy 1938 (Fleet Training Publication 167). The new publication resulted in exercises from both the Marines and Navy to test the validity of the theories constructed in the doctrine. After a brief break in the exercises -it was deemed that the Marine Corps’ limited strength was not great enough to participate in fleet exercises from the late 1920s to the early 1930s- the Marine Corps resumed their exercises once again, given the intensification of World War II’s European Theatre. These exercises tested new techniques and equipment, such as the Landing Vehicle Tracked (LVT), and would be developed throughout the entirety of the war. For example, Roebling’s LVT was modified with armour and weapons after the battle of Tarawa. The development of various landing craft throughout the war proved to be essential to the USMC’s ability to properly perform amphibious operations during World War …show more content…

Military had been training for an amphibious assault for some time, their first time didn’t come until the Central Pacific Drive in Tarawa beginning in late 1943. The battle marked the beginning of a momentum shift in the fight towards the Japanese homeland. The initial plan was given to the 2nd Marine Division on November 20, 1943, in which they were to land on the island’s northern beaches and assault across the island, and then change direction to quell any resistance. The Marines were handed no easy task, given that the island housed nearly 500 pillboxes, coastal defense guns, artillery, mortars, tanks and nearly 5,000 troops. All in all, Betio was the most heavily armoured island to be attacked in the entire Pacific Campaign. By the end of the first day, of the 5,000 Marines who landed on the island, 1,500 were either dead, wounded or missing. In the following days, other battalions landed on the island, and nearby neighboring islands to ultimately shift the momentum in the United States’ favor, and quell the Japanese resistance. The Tarawa campaign provided insights towards future amphibious operations, such as factors of success in enemy

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