ANSWER 1 – Long-run average cost refers to per unit cost incurred by an organization in the production of a desired level of output when all the inputs are variable. The LRAC of an organization can be attained from its short-run average cost curves. Each SRAC curve represents the firm's short-run cost of production when different amounts of capital are used. The shape of the LRAC curve is similar to the SRAC curve while the U-shape of the LRAC is not due to increasing and later diminishing marginal. The -ve slope of the LRAC curve signifies economies of scale and increasing returns to scale.
Focus on training and education within industry. 3. Support of other industries On the other hand , diseconomies of scale refers to disadvantages that arise due to expansion of a firm’s capacity leading to a rise in the average cost of production, similar to economies of scale , diseconomies of scale can also be categorized into internal and external diseconomies of scale. o Internal Diseconomies: this refers to the diseconomies which a firm incurs due to the growth of the firm itself. This results in the decrease in the firms output and increase in the long run average cost.
Change in supply, usually supply curve doesn’t be static it could happen that will shift certain quantity and price. The characters of the market can change the supply curve by shifting in or shifting out. There are several types that change the supply curve such a decrease in costs of production; this means business can supply more at each price. Lower costs could be due to lower wages, lower raw material costs. An increase in the number of producers will cause an increase in supply.
The attractiveness is the overall profitability of the industry whilst unattractiveness drives down profitability. Thus using this model, it implies that profitability or the return is a constant integer, across firms and industries; however various studies established that different industries have different levels of profitability due to their diverse structure and circumstances they operate in. The model can also be utilized to develop an edge over competitors and rudimentarily for identifying a niche whether it is potentially feasible to manufacture new products, services or open new
That means all IT functions where benefits for the company are greater than the transactions costs should be outsourced, benefits include increased revenue or reduced costs. In terms of governance mode selection, A market governance mode is preferred when transaction costs are low. Because of economies of scale and scope. Alternatively, an internal governance mode is preferred when transaction costs are high. Organizations can minimize costs by reducing the need for lasting specific IT assets, increase transaction frequency, reduce complexity and uncertainty in IT tasks, improve performance measurements, and reduce dependence on other
SOURCES OF MARKET POWER 1. ECONOMIES OF SCALE: Reduction in cost of production by an increase in production volume is Economies of scale. It is also referred to as diminishing marginal cost. Reduction in cost will help the firm to: • Drop its prices thereby increasing its demand • Charge the same amount and earn a higher profit A combination of the above two can also be considered. Spreading fixed costs over a larger production base is one way to generate operational efficiencies.
Name: Zaidan Fayez Alkeswani Student Uni. Number: 2110147 Supply chain management is a vital decision making in every company, taking into account the customers’ satisfaction and requirements. Nestle’ has considered the “value or quality” of its products as the main factor desired by its customers. So the company designed its own supply chain to ensure having the best quality of its products to maintain the satisfaction of customers regardless of the cost encountered and ensuring giving the growers of coffee a fair deal for their good quality products. Coffee is one of the most products subjected to fair trade, fair trade is a certificate given by specialized organizations such as Fairtrade International and FLO-CERT.
ECONOMIES OF SCALE In microeconomics, economies of scale refers to the cost advantages which an enterprise obtains due to size, output or scale of operations , with cost per unit of output generally decreasing with increasing scale as fixed costs are spread out over more units of output.Often operational efficiency is also greater with increasing scale, leading to lower variable cost. Economies of scale applies to a wide variety of organizational and business situations and at various levels of an enterprise, such as a business or manufacturing unit, plant or an entire enterprise. For example, a large manufacturing facility is expected to have a lower cost per unit of output than a smaller facility, when all other factors are equal, while
Increased competition 3.1.4 Supplier Management Suppliers are major contributors in the effective functioning of supply chain operations. They can contribute through the timely and quality deliveries of goods and services. Therefore, it is essential that a purchase manger should work with suppliers to coordinate their operations and customer needs. i. Aspects of Supplier Management There are various aspects of supplier management such as vendor analysis, supplier audits, supplier certification and supplier partnering.
It is a range of production levels where standard cost is minimized and companies attain regular returns to scale. It changes from industry to industry relating to the type of cost structure in a specific branch of the market. If the Minimum Efficient Scale is small compared to total market size, a lot of firms can exist in the same place. In contrast, if the minimum efficient scale is quite enormous caused by high fixed costs, only few basic players can be predominant. High quality and low quality companies have unexpected cost curves and they do not have the same minimum efficient scale.
Lower production costs can also be achieved through economies of scale and scope that arise from similar or greater amounts equal logistics services and produces an LSP through the use of a higher proportion of assets used. In addition, service providers can supply various types of demand balance better than a single firm production through diversification of client portfolios and reduce labor costs by benefiting from lower salaries than those in
Long run cost curves are U-shaped in light of the presence of economies and diseconomies of scale. Economies of scale are the cost advantages that a firm, or a business when all is said in done, acquires by extending production. At the end of the day, they are spoken to by the diminishment in unit costs over the long run as the extent of the firm – the scale – increases. Diseconomies of scale are the inverse: long-run average costs will in the end start to rise when the measure of the firm turns out to be too much expansive. The most evident reason is that as organizations increment in size they turn out to be harder to control and co-ordinate.
Riley (n.d.) has demonstrated that “the size of market allows business to exploit economies of scale leading to improvements in productive efficiency”. Furthermore, economies of scale enhance international competitiveness, resulting in lower prices for consumers. Inefficient companies
Logistics can reduce the enterprise cost, enhance the competitiveness of enterprises. Supply Chain Management (SCM) is the management of the flow of goods and services. It includes the moving and storing of raw materials, work-in-process inventory, and products from point of origin to point of consumption. The Supply Chain Management can cost up to operating costs
Also there are economies of scale as there are lower prices and lower costs for the consumers. Now talking about the main disadvantages of these trading blocs, there is loss in the opportunities for the members who can trade with other trading blocs. These blocs can also mislead world trade and can reduce the benefits of exploiting more of comparative advantage with different countries. Also the producers which are inefficient ones will get protected than the producers which are more efficient outside the trading bloc. Major trade blocs in the world are European Union (EU) which is the world largest trading bloc.
It’s size and its inclusion of the economies of scale concept may occur for various reasons, such as organizational reason (specialization and division of labor); financial reason (a large firm can get a better interest rate and also a better discount rate due to a large quantity that it buys); technical reason (division of high fixed costs across large number of units) and many more. In line with this concept then it is evident that a positive relationship between the profitability and the firm size is expected. Carl Ericson (2011) of Atomic Object in his research on profit margins and the influence of Firm size on software development firms concluded that the bigger the business is, the lower it's profit margin. Sagework’s Mary Ellen Biery (2012) in her report ‘Does size matter? Sales growth, margins by company size’ emphasizes that the “smaller is higher rule” only works when a small firm is growing but only up to a point from which the profit margin stabilizes regardless of the business growth
Examine the potential synergies among the value chains of different product lines or business units: Each value element, such as advertising or manufacturing, has an inherent economy of scale in which activities are conducted at their lowest possible cost per unit of output. If a particular product is not being produced at a high enough level to reach economies of scale in distribution, another product could be used to share the same distribution channel. For an example of economies of scope, which result when the value chains of two separates products or services share activities, such as the same marketing channels or manufacturing facilities. The cost of join production of multiple products can be lower than the cost of separate
Also, due to the technology boom, ” Surviving automotive companies have famously bent over backward to save pennies on every car or component they make. However, the situation is becoming more dire: The cost of capital is unlikely to come down from its already low inflation-adjusted levels, and new capital outlays are rising for advances in, among other areas, connected car and autonomous driving technology´(Parkin,
Introduction Mergers and Acquisitions form part of corporate restructuring. So does amalgamation, takeovers, spin offs, leveraged buyouts, buyback of shares, capital reorganization, sale of business units and assets etc. Mergers and Acquisitions are the most popular means of corporate restructuring. They have played an important role in the external growth of a number of companies in the world. The basic purpose of corporate restructuring is to enhance the shareholder value.