“Their (Mississippi, South Carolina, or Louisiana) framers intended and did disfranchise a majority of their citizenship [deprived them of the right to vote] because of “race and color” and “previous condition”..” [Doc. 7] This lead to the ratification of 15th Amendment. The 15th Amendment protects the right to vote of the emancipated slaves as it says on the document, “the right to vote shall not be denied on the basis of race, color, or previous condition.” The aftermath of civil war, resulted with good economical changes. The slaves used to work on their master’s plantation. However, when they were freed they spread out and became independent.
Historically speaking, except for a short time during reconstruction, African Americans in the South were denied basic political and economic rights. As a result of Martin Luther King Jr.’s campaign in Selma, Alabama, the Voting Rights act of 1965 was passed. This act meant that literacy test, test used for voting discrimination against African Americans, were removed from voting requirements, as well as the poll tax, another tool used to keep African Americans from voting. Because of this, the percentage of black adults who registered to vote nearly doubled between 1964 and 1966. The ultimate goal of the movement was to achieve equality, and once African Americans were granted basic political rights, and could vote and participate in politics, their economic and social conditions would also slowly become better.
Due to the large scale of diverse people of African descent, some newly arrived and some deeply rooted in America, there was a remake of the way African Americans saw themselves collectively and a new society was created. The old story of movement and rootedness was about to play itself out yet again. The image of black immigrants began to have a more influential role in politics and the culture of African America, where they have earned their rights, rather have them being given. The newcomers’ focus was access to visas, the treatment of asylees, and other matters, which revealed a greater occupation with their homeland rather than their new one. This changed during the presidential campaign in 2006, as the newly arrived found a candidate who not only looked like them but also shared many of their experiences.
After all male, regardless to race, were guaranteed the right to vote by the 15th Amendment, white Southerners started to create ways in which they could oppress blacks and disempower their newly found privileges. The disfranchisement of blacks started with literacy tests, poll taxes and the grandfather clause. In other words, the ability to read or pay taxes has to be proven before people could vote. However, most black people grew up without a good educational background and were therefore excluded from the voting system. In 1877, when the Reconstruction era ended, inequality and injustice towards black people was present more than ever.
President Andrew Johnson had tried to veto the Civil RIghts Act of 1865 but it was overturned and the act became a Law. President Johnson’s attitude toward this led to the growth of the Radical Republican Movement and it also increased intervention in the South, more help to former slaves and also to Johnson’s impeachment. The Black Code, Freedman’s Bureau, and the Bill of 1865 are all prime examples of how the African American’s have freedom. In 1865, the Civil War ended offering more freedoms to all African American
Then there was Charles Sumner, thinking on the same lines as Stevens. According to www.history.com/topics/charles-sumner ”He saw Reconstruction as the opportunity to establish civil rights for blacks, first in the South where Congress had explicit authority and gradually in the North. In 1865 he insisted that suffrage be granted to all black males. At the time of his death, Sumner was still vainly agitating for federal legislation repealing all discriminatory laws.” Finally, there was President Andrew Johnson. After Abraham Lincoln was assassinated, just as the South surrendered in April 1865, and then Andrew Johnson inherited the problem of Reconstruction.
This was significant because Douglass was an important figure of human rights and fought hard to gain black suffrage. July 30, 1866 - Ku Klux Klan The Ku Klux Klan was established in Tennessee to intimidate African Americans. Another goal was to restore white rule. April 9, 1866- Congress pass the Civil Rights Act Congress pass the Civil Rights Act that gave all citizens under law, the right to make contracts, the right to own/sell property, and the right to equal treatment. This is significant because these acts allowed freed slaves to receive equal treatment as non slaves., March 2, 1867- Congress pass the first Reconstruction Act Five military districts that were under the leadership of a military general were created.
Citizens. Slavery was deemed unconstitutional since beginning of the United States, but racist slave owning politicians interpreted the law to meet their demands. Slaves only purpose was to work the plantations land, not being allowed to be enlightened. After the war to “end slavery” concluded, the civil war was only regain the seceded southern states, not to abolish injustices towards African Americans. African Americans continued to be unrepresented until the 15th amendment was ratified in 1870.
It automatically freed enslaved African Americans and guaranteed their citizenship. It also said that no State has the authorization to deny any citizen their rights unless first given the proper treatment under the judicial system, which they are entitled to. The 15th amendment guaranteed their right to vote. Over what issues did Johnson and Congress Clash? Answer: Johnson was made president after the Civil War and had to deal with issues arising from conflict between Northerners and Southerners.
The 20th century can be fairly considered as the most important period in the history of African American people because it is just the time when racism discrimination was overcome. For many years before the beginning of the struggle for rights of African-American people, there was a legal system based on white supremacy. African Americans didn't have a real opportunity to vote. Segregation was spread everywhere: black people were not allowed to take seats in public transport which belonged to whites, they could not attend universities and schools for white people, it was even forbidden to drink from the same drinking fountains. Many shops and stores, cafes and restaurants refused service African Americans and treated them as inferior people.
African American after the Civil War enjoyed many privileges that their predecessors could only dream of. They could vote, hold office and attend school. New Orleans, Louisiana, was one of the more integrated cities in the South. It desegregated its streetcars in 1867, began experimenting with integrated public schools in 1869, legalized interracial marriage between 1868 and 1896, elected a total of 32 black state senators and 95 state representatives, and had integrated juries, public boards, and police departments. But after the war things began to get good for African American, and the south thought they needed to do something, after war, which severely limited the rights of black and segregated African American from White American.
The Voting Right act signed to law by President Lyndon Johnson on August 6, 1965, provided for a direct federal protection that enabled African Americans to register to vote, and to vote without discrimination on the basis of race, and color. This particular act of 1965 gave African Americans not only a legal stand to test their rights but also allowed them to register for the election, and the opportunity to run for both, state and federal office positions.
I was surprised by the whole unit reading about the unfortunate racial tension between Caucasians and African-American people. Even After the civil war there was still too much segregation. Schools formed to teach African-American students finding a way to separate Caucasians from African-Americans. Colleges created for African-American students due to the Morrill Act, of 1890. Yet Caucasian colleges were still getting more state funding.
As an African American educator I am unable to do many things, such as voting and having access to economic opportunities. There are many Americans who are able to vote due to the fact of their skin tone which is simply unfair. We are all Americans we just have somewhat of a different race. In past times many African American citizens and other races suffered from slavery and inequality. This took a huge turn after the Civil Rights Movement.