Very soon after Lincoln died, and his Vice President Andrew Johnson was placed into presidency. The summer of 1865, Johnson focused on another plan for reconstruction without help and opinions from Congress. When Johnson invited people to read his course of action for reconstruction, he was the laugh of the South, and many state governments began to evade the laws. Thus, created Black Codes, which gave White Southerner 's supremacy to newly freed slaves. The Black Codes denied blacks availability to guns, insulting language (or blasphemy) illegal, and barred blacks from voting.
Ferguson or Brown v. Board of Education reached the Supreme Court, reconstruction after the Civil War ended and the ratified 14th and 15th Amendment, were needed to address the rights former slaves have. The 14th Amendment, adopted in 1870, “forbid the state and federal government from denying the right to vote based on race” (Cornell). The 15th Amendment, ratified in 1870, “stated the right to vote couldn’t be denied based on color, race or past servitude” (Cornell). Even with the new Amendments, African Americans were treated different than other Americans. When Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) cases reached the Supreme Court, the rights of the African American population took a step back.
His plan also required that Southern states outlaw slavery before they could rejoin the Union as well as ratify the Thirteenth Amendment. The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery from the United States. Although Johnson opposed slavery, he did not support equal rights for African-Americans. "White men alone must manage the South," he stated. President Johnson 's plan was mostly successful because all former Confederate states except Texas had set up new governments because of his plan by the end of 1865.
The disfranchisement began with Mississippi in 1890, where they took blacks voting rights under something called the Mississippi Plan. The big three; poverty, shame, and board of registrars, gave was loop holes they made you go through in order to vote in MS. Later South Carolina, Louisiana, North Carolina, Alabama, and Virginia joined the bandwagon. Outside of the other states Louisiana named theirs “grandfather clause” which was much different other than the fact of voting was based off your
The laws of many states decreed that blacks and whites could not use the same public facilities, ride the same buses, attend the same schools, etc. These laws came to be known as Jim Crow laws. Although many people felt that these laws were unjust, it was not until the 1890s that they were directly challenged in court. In 1892, an African-American man named Homer Plessy refused to give up his seat to a white man on a train in New Orleans, as he was required to do by Louisiana state law. For this action he was arrested.
The reason the Civil Rights was even started was because the blacks was not getting equally rights and getting denied to vote. Was Politics the reason that L.B.J. signed the Civil Rights In 1964? First, Johnson wanted people to be treated the same. Lyndon taught at Welhausen Elementary School, Cotulla, Texas, May 7, 1929.
The South Carolina vs. Katzenbach case was established based off the U.S. Supreme Court on the Voting Rights Act of 1965. On March 1965, the Voting Rights Act offered the federal government new powers to fight the alienation of African Americans prolonged by the southern government. Many Southerners didn’t approve Congress’ decision to pass this legislation. The people of the south argued and believed that the U.S congress had violated their states’ rights. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was basically written as a reinforcement of the fifteenth amendment.
The purpose was to help the South become a part of the Union again. Federal troops occupied much of the South during the Reconstruction to insure that laws were followed and another war did not occur. Abraham Lincoln was first in charge of Reconstruction when the Civil War ended on April 9, 1865. He had a plan that any southerner who took an oath to the Union would be given a pardon and that if 10% of the voters in a state supported the Union, the state could then be readmitted. His plan also stated that any state that was readmitted must make slavery illegal as part of their constitution.
Sadly, they couldn’t do anything about it since they weren’t a law in place that said that it could happen. A few good things about slavery being ended this meant they were now citizens and could hold office. Society soon started targeting colored people for no reason other now hate. Many Colored people were brutally killed and beaten. Three years after the civil war the 14th amendment came to be law which made it so all states had to protect its citizens that were within their borders.
Abraham Lincoln was the first president who mentioned African American voting. In 1865, Lincoln said that freed slaves who were intelligent or who had served as a soldier should be allowed to vote. The Fourteenth Amendment passed in 1868 guaranteed this right as part of the full citizenship accorded to African American men. Voting remained a contentious issue; the Nineteenth Amendment gave women the right to vote but the racial divide remained. Voting rights became a central issue in the Civil Rights Movement.
Even after years of deadly war, division still existed. In the year 1954 “The U.S. Supreme Court struck down the “separate but equal” doctrine that formed the basis for state-sanctioned discrimination, drawing national and international attention to African Americans’ plight (history.com).” Throughout the years following “ ...civil rights activists used nonviolent protest and civil disobedience to bring about change, and the federal government made legislative headway with initiatives such as the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Civil Rights Act of 1968 (history.com).” Eventually segregation was defeated and everyone was equal. Division was coming to an end and people started to be nice with each other. There was not segregation in schools and white people and black people were treated equally. They lived up to the saying “All men are created equal” and there was peace.
The U.S. Supreme Court encountered various difficulties in trying to overthrow Jim Crow. After the infamous Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) decision, it makes things difficult for the court to overturn its “separate, but equal” ruling. Heading into the 20th Century, Black civil rights in America, particularly in the South were met with swift opposition. It was in large part due to the Supreme Court ruling that gave those states the power to enforce discriminatory legislation. In Robert J. Cottrol book, “Brown v. Board of Education: Caste, Culture, and the Constitution”, he described the Jim Crow era as it dealt with public education.
What was happening in Mississippi when the civil rights Movement was ending was that a part was formed called the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. There goal was to let the colored to vote for once and all not just 5% but an 100%, The congress in 1965 passed the law that the colored could register to vote without reading or writing. John F. Kennedy made a change of law which stopped segregation within public places.With this law passed the whites still made it hard for the colored to register to vote. The MFDP in nineteen sixty four was also challenging the white congress because since there was no one colored. They elected their own group of party to run because again there was no one to stand up for the colored society and have equal justice.
The right to vote in the United States is a fundamental right for all of the citizens. However, for African American citizens, that fundamental right was being taken away from them, despite previous constitutional amendments. Over the course of five months, African Americans fought peacefully for their right to vote. By marching from Selma to Montgomery, African Americans pathed the way to the establishment of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which then allowed them to exercise their voting rights. The beginning of the fight for voting rights began in February of 1965.