In the time between 1877 and 1920 America saw another significant change to its landscape; this time in the make-up of its inhabitants. With industrialization immigrants increasingly came from Eastern and Southern European countries, Canada, Japan, and even Latin America. By 1910, some 70 percent of the immigrants entering the country were Southern and Eastern Europeans. In fact, in many cities the immigrated population outnumbered the native born citizens. Many states, especially those with meager populations, actively pursued immigrants by offering jobs or land for farming. The industrialization lured millions seeking economic opportunities for their families, while were anxious to escape oppressive governments. Whatever the reason, with these groups came a rich culture that would forever help to reshape the nation.
Out of the 7.6 million Europeans that arrived between 1900 and 1909, 72% came from Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Italy. Ellis Island in New York was the major port for immigrants crossing the Atlantic Ocean during 1892, and Angel Island in California for those arriving through the Pacific Ocean. Americans began to worry about the rapid expansion of immigrants, whose customs seemed strange to most of the native population. As a result, anti-immigrant movements and the uprising of nativism arose. Immigration reached its peak from 1900 to 1915 when nearly 15 million people entered the U.S; that is as many as in the previous forty years. Nearly 120,860 Caribbean immigrants arrived during 1919 where the majority was Filipinos. Immigration experienced
Founded by colonists, settlers and pioneers, the United States can be defined as a land of immigrants. But public opinion on immigration has changed dramatically in the past decades. In the 1920s, the majority of these immigrants originate from Europe, while immigrants in the United States today include a large percentage of those coming from Asia and Latin America (Chow and Keating). Immigration issues made division in the general public, especially among politicians. The greatest controversial subject in the immigration issue is the subject of illegal immigration. For example, immigration reform supporters block a street on Capitol Hill on Thursday, August 1, 2013, in protest against immigration policies and the House’s inability to pass a bill that contains a pathway to citizenship ("The Facts on Immigration Today.").
In the nineteenth century, the United States was regarded for being the land of opportunity and shelter for immigrants. For many immigrants, the promise of not having to withstand the pressures of political, economic, and religious persecution in Europe helped boost thousands of people to come to the coast of Staten Island. Despite what the Americans conceived their roles towards immigrants to be, the perception of the immigrants to the real story of how they survived in America does not support the claim that America is a land of opportunity and shelter.
The events that occurred in response to the Red Scare not only reveals that the government was willing to discriminate against non-native and non-democratic Americans as a form of protection, but shows that many natural-born Americans still believe in “America for Americans” from the 1800’s, causing nativism to return. In fact, immigration was now limited more than ever, especially since the need for unskilled labors greatly decreased due to the effects of World War I.
In the 1800s America changed in many different areas. The education system improved vastly after having schools with poor education that teach little and schools that make it hard for the poor to go to. American art changed greatly when America developed their own style and many books were written that are famous today like Moby-Dick. A change in women’s rights occurred with many changes that pushed equality at the time. In America the need for a change in education was great.
3. How did immigration to America change in the latter half of the nineteenth century, and what was the response to that change?
The period of time after the Civil War and before World War I was a period of tremendous change in America. Although immigration is a major tenet of the United States, due to the changing economy, improvements in transportation, a shifting of the American people to the city, and deepening class divisions, industrialization was the most powerful force shaping the country between 1865 and 1914, followed by urbanization, and finally immigration. The most noticeable effects of industrialization are changes to the economy, alterations in the distribution of wealth, and the rise of organized labor. Overall, the growth of industry raised the standard of living for most people.
Did the benefits of the immigration boom in the late 1800s outweigh the drawbacks? During the 1800s, many people migrated to urban areas because they wanted jobs and land. Many people thought that migrating to urban areas would be like a perfect dream, however they were disappointed when they realized that the benefits of migration did not outweigh the drawbacks. During the late 1800s, millions of immigrants were coming to the United States. Most of the immigrants came from Europe.
Americans had rarely accepted outsiders as equals, and that was the case with immigrants coming to the U.S in the 1840s to the 1920s. A time in America where immigrants were not considered inferior to native white Americans did not exist. The hatred of anything non-American, especially with the coming of World War I in 1914, would only cause more Americans to despise immigrants. Part of this was rooted simply in racism, which existed towards groups other than African Americans, but much of it was simply that Americans considered themselves the chosen people while everyone else was below them. Thus, despite immigrants being accepted into America, those immigrants were still treated far worse than white citizens between the 1840s and 1920s, for the prejudice against them was obvious even in the laws created.
Opening in 1892, Ellis Island quickly became the most active immigration station (and largest in America) for Immigrants entering the U.S.; mainly from Europe. For these Immigrants, Ellis Island was the entrance point to "the land of opportunity" and they had worked hard and spent a lot of hard earned money to get there. The immigrants that came to the America were coming partially because of the prospect and promises of prosperity and happiness and that America was “the land of opportunity”, but mainly because of drought, famine, war, and religious persecution in their home countries.
As the closing of the frontier began, Americans celebrated the 400th anniversary of Columbus 's arrival to the new world. It was a chance for America to exhibit its power. The fair showcased the products of progress. According to Ben Wattenberg, “There was a 22,000-pound block of cheese from Canada, and the world 's largest cannon, from Germany” (pbs.org). Wattenberg also stated that by the turn of the century, social scientists created a system using numbers to define the standards of beauty and the status of the ideal man and woman.
The early 1900s came with an abundance of changes. There were multiple waves of immigration causing increased social separation. There was also increased industrialization. The increase in industrialization provided many jobs for the incoming immigrants. However, these immigrants took on a lot more than just a new job when they came to America.
America’s Diverse Population In the nineteenth century, rates of immigration across the world increased. Within thirty years, over eleven million immigrants came to the United States. There were new types of people migrating than what the United States were used to seeing as well. Which made people from different backgrounds and of different race work and live in tight spaces together; causing them to be unified.
The mid-19th century saw an unprecedented wave of immigrants coming into the country. At its peak, Ellis Island, the main processing station for immigrants, handled an astounding 5,000 people every day. Because of the language and culture barriers faced by each group of people, they often settled amongst themselves. Very quickly, country-specific neighborhoods began popping up throughout New York and the surrounding area. This helped to alleviate the stresses with moving to a new country; however, most immigrants came to the United States penniless and lived in low-income housing as their jobs rarely supported themselves let alone their families. Most of these jobs were labor-intensive, and oftentimes, very dangerous. “These urban immigrants