Social epidemiology is “a systematic and comprehensive study of health, well-being, social conditions or problems, and disease and their determinants, using social epidemiological and social science methods to develop interventions, programs, policies and institutions that may reduce the extent, adverse impact or incidence-based methods for public health activism” (Cwikel, 2006:4). The definition of social epidemiology accentuate that defining the distribution of disease, social problems and understanding all the relevant risk factors and the interrelationships are only part of social epidemiology (Cwikel, 2006:4). This definition of social epidemiology includes social problems because most challenges in the public health are related to personal behaviour and numerous “macro trends” in the social structure such as the distribution of wealth, social resources, and exposure to media and market forces (Cwikel, 2006:4). Therefore, sociologists who are interested in studying social problems to help develop interventions and programs, they will tend to improve their research and practice through the methods of social epidemiology, which will help reveal how
Two of these health models are the biomedical and the psychosocial models. These models can be examined to understand their assumptions, how they are affected by the leading causes of death, how they relate to research, their aspects during diagnosis and treatment, and their strengths and weaknesses. Assumptions of the Models The biomedical approach is centered around the absence of a disease as the definition of health (Gurung, 2014)). This model has a strong emphasis on the biological mechanisms of disease, while assuming that the psychological and social aspects of the patient are unimportant factors in both understanding and treating patients (Lane, 2014). However, the biopsychosocial model does assume that the psychological and social components are essential in understanding and treating the patient.
Finally, learning about the theory of the biopsychosocial model will greatly influence my future role as a doctor. This concept teaches the importance of treating all aspects of a patient’s wellbeing, not just the biological illness. I believe an understanding of this idea will allow me
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Watson notes that caring does not necessitate verbal exchange (Rexroth & Davidhizar, 2003). Contribution Watson’s theory contributes to the discipline of nursing by using the value of human caring theory as an introductory idea and viewpoint for any health professional. Watson’s theory concentrates on caring in several health disciplines and is compatible with the caring attitude that nursing has had over time. The center of the human caring theory is about human caring relationships and the intense human understandings of life itself, not just health-illness singularities, as conventionally demarcated inside medicine. The concept is an exceptional way of being human, a unique way of being contemporary, observant, mindful, and calculated as the nurse operates with another person.
Health psychology is trying to find all the causes and is working to change them. In this way they assist people take care of their health which is also termed as “self care” (Sarafino, Edward, and. Smith, 2002). This led to great advancement in the field of “genetic research” as it aids to find out the main root (genetic makeup) of the problem. Another field called epidemiology also studies the closely about
The more traditional framework that would have been used would have been the scientific biomedical framework. This framework is a model that does not take into consideration the psychological and social factors which may be contributing to a person’s illness; the illness is simply seen in biological terms. This ideology is far outdated, and one can see this simply by reading the WHO’s most recent definition of health, mentioned in the opening of this paper. This model views medications as the resolution to all illnesses, however we know that in today’s society, medications can often cause further problems- for example the creation of superbugs such as MRSA in the hospital system, bugs that as a result of overexposure to antibiotics have now become immune to the medication’s effects, and can therefore be detrimental to a patient’s health. By choosing to concentrate merely on biological impacts on health, a vast array of other factors, such as the environment, the money invested in public health care systems and many more, are ignored.
Chapter 1. What is epidemiology? More chapters in Epidemiology for the uninitiated Epidemiology is the study of how often diseases occur in different groups of people and why. Epidemiological information is used to plan and evaluate strategies to prevent illness and as a guide to the management of patients in whom disease has already developed. Like the clinical findings and pathology, the epidemiology of a disease is an integral part of its basic description.
Bioethics has brought the attention to health workers as well as enhancing health workers to better understand the patient as well. Displaying the ethical side in bioethics, health workers are now adequate to follow the ethical code in order to help the patients understand better. Ethical problems had a relation to problems in healthcare, which has now been very much improved. In bioethics there are four principles, autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, they are grouped into two levels minimum and maximum. The principle of autonomy is when the person has to be able to correspond their decision clear and restate it, the principle of beneficence is when the act benefits a person, the principle of nonmaleficence is when you cannot harm people, and the principle of justice is when an accessible population has to receive a benefit.
As described previously, QOL is a broad concept covering all aspects of human life, whereas HRQOL focuses on the effects of illness and specifically on the impact of treatment on QOL . HRQOL is a reflection of the way that individuals perceive and react to their health status and the nonmedical aspects of their lives, which include health-related factors, such as physical, functional, emotional, and mental well-being as well as nonhealth-related elements, such as job, family, friends, and other situations in life . Regarding health outcomes, most indicators reflect a disease model, but HRQOL provides a comprehensive evaluation encompassing all the important aspects of QOL related to health. It has generated a new focus on a broader, more positive concept of health, rather than a narrow, negative focus (disease