During the time period between 600 CE and 1450 CE, Afro-Eurasia experienced a deepening of old and new human interactions across the region. This resulted in an increase in wealth and cross-cultural exchanges. During this time, the prophet Muhammad spread Islam throughout the Afro-Eurasian region. Also, the expansion of empires like imperial China, the Byzantine empire, and Mongol empire helped Afro-Eurasia trade and communication as new people developed their conquerors economies and trade networks, as well as ideas. Like many empires, migrations also had a significant environmental impact on the Afro-Eurasia region.
Africa had an abundance of natural resources at this time and was easy to imperialize as it was not industrialized meaning that it lacked proper weaponry in order to defend itself. The European imperialism of Africa was fueled by the industrialism and market force in the 1800’s as the Europeans gained the motivation and tools necessary to imperialize Africa so they would not have to worry about whether or not Africa would let it set up spheres of influence. . Spheres of influence were areas in Africa that in which Europeans controlled the resources and trade in the area. The motivation to imperialize Africa for the Europeans was that the nation with the most raw materials would become the most industrialized and therefore, the most powerful. The industrial revolution also provided the Europeans with far more advanced weaponry over the Africans as new and improved weapons were easier and cheaper for Europeans to manufacture.
While the upper class of Africa benefited from this for a short term, the rest of Africa had a domino effect falling after the slave trade began. In a Letter to the Kings of Portugal, Nzinga Mbemba wrote: “the excessive freedom given by your agents and officials to the men and merchants who are allowed to come to this Kingdom to set up shops with goods and many things which have been prohibited by us, and which they spread throughout our Kingdoms and Domains”(Doc 1). This letter was written in 1526, only a little over 20 years after the slave trade began. At first thought the slave trade seemed like it was mutually beneficial to both Europe and Africa, but was only realized later that it would cause a ripple on the rest of Africa. The Europeans first thought that Africans will “always be tending the fire, for it is the one thing you especially looked after”(Doc 7).
Making African products become more valuable to the international market helped Africa a lot as it gave them a good amount of money. Better medical care and sanitation which caused higher lifespans, increased agriculture products, and higher literary rates in Africa and India. It helped a lot in giving the weak countries new western technologies, transportaton, and war techniques. This advancement in technology increased population and food production, benefitting everyone. The European technologies helped countries in advancing the colonized Asian countries and Africa.
This quote proves that times were Golden in Europe. If they had more farmland than they would have more food. If they had more food than they would have a bigger population. Another reason it could be considered a the Golden Era is because Ghana had an army that could protect traders, they worked hard, but they were safe and protected, and they had plenty to eat. “Ghana was a great military power in ancient times...
The New Imperialism in Africa was an expansion on Africa by Europe that was motivated by profit and prestige. One of the most famous Imperialists during the time was Cecil Rhodes. He said that “[Britain] must find new lands from which [it] can easily obtain raw materials and at the same time exploit cheap slave labor that is available from the natives of the colonies.” (Document 3) Along with Rhodes, there were various other imperialists that strongly believed Britain and Europe as a whole was the most powerful force in the world and that therefore they alone had the right to “geopolitical dominance” (Document 5)
European imperialism not only involved Africa, imperialism stretched from North America to Asia and Australia. Western Europe and the empires that existed within it, were the most advanced during the time of imperialism and colonisation and the reach of these empires was worldwide and their impacts are still seen today. Due to the comparatively late decolonisation in Africa, the effects are more prominent there than anywhere else today. This does not deduct from the fact that the effects of European imperialism cannot be seen elsewhere. Similar to Africa, colonisation allowed for infrastructure to be vastly improved and modern technology improved their lives.
First, animistic beliefs still played an incredibly large role in many Sub-Saharan African societies. Leaders such as Sundiata of the Mali Empire tried to keep the amount of old animistic beliefs and newer religions such as Islam the same. Traditional practices such as the Khweta Ceremony continue to this present day. The reason for this continuity is that the location for Sub-Saharan Africa causes it to become not completely isolated from the rest of the modern world, but rather just incredibly difficult to get to. Many societies inside of Sub-Saharan Africa would have no particular or compelling reason for them to switch to Christianity or Islam.
The major benefit of taking up Islam was that it allowed for more wide ranging trade contacts with the non-African Muslim world as well as North Africa (“Pre-colonial African Religion”). On the other hand, Europe was the only society with Catholicism and Protestantism as its major religions after the Protestant Reformation. In other words, Europe was strictly monotheistic whereas West Africa combined Islam and traditional religions based on
One way to recognize a thriving kingdom is to look at its trade and economy. Africa’s empires had a trade system that allowed their economy to flourish. “Ancient Ghana was an extremely complex empire. It possessed many of the characteristics of powerful nations today...wealth based off trade” (Document 3). The trade system relied on key trading centers, such as Aksum (present-day Ethiopia), “Aksum reached its height between 325 and 360” (Doc 1).
The Empires of Ancient West Africa became wealthy and prosperous because of trade. They had bustling trade centers,like Timbuktu,Gao,Jenne-Jeno,kombi salah,and Niani according to Mr.Clifton. King Mansa Musa had an impact on trade every trader that stopped at amli were welcomed,fed,housed,and safe. King Mansa musa took a pilgrimage to Mecca and everyone he meet he gave them a gold nugget and he also expanded trade.
In the same region that the Ghana empire once existed, a new empire came to power. In the 1230s, the Malinke people took control of the trade routes in West Africa. King Sundiata conquered and united several smaller kingdoms to form Mali, extending their territory to the Atlantic Ocean. A relative of Sundiata named Mansa Musa took control in 1307.
Africa is known as the origin of the human race. Since that is the case, Africa has had the most opportunities to impress the modern world. Africa has done just that. Africa had three major kingdoms, each of which were major successes. Throughout history, Africa’s kingdoms have utilized their natural resources to become some of the most prosperous kingdoms the world has ever seen.
Europe, Africa, and the Americas each had intelligent societies developed in them. However, geography of the territories they lived in contributed to the development of these civilizations. Civilizations that lived close to each other often influenced or inspired each other. Moreover, civilizations often took from their predecessors. A key example of this is when the Aztecs destroyed and took over the Toltec Native American’s land.