Africa’s exports were comprised of raw materials such as oil, copper, cotton, coffee, and cocoa. In the agricultural sector, the growth of cash crops reached such an extreme during the decades of colonialism that food had to be imported, while industrial development was thwarted in Africa itself because manufacturing and the processing of raw materials happened exclusively overseas. Meanwhile, “colonial investments focused on infrastructure supporting export/import transportation rather than focusing on transforming and improving local productive
Food Insecurity The continuous increasing demand for the food requires the rapid improvement in food production technology. In a country like Ethiopia, the economy is mainly based on agriculture and the climate conditions are isotropic, still we are not able to make full usage of agricultural resources. The main reason is the lack of rains and scarcity of the land reservoir water in some areas of the country. The problem I address about my country is that Ethiopia is one of the countries among the third world countries facing food insecurity currently. It is believed that around 10.2 million people are getting hunger out of the total population of 100 million people.
The problem is that although Africa has such great potential, it one of the most unproductive agricultural continents and relies on the imports for other states for food. Africa needs to support its smallholder farmers together with maintaining fertile land will see an increase in African agricultural production (Cargill,
another self-strategy was the alliance exchange making farmers focus on a central purchasing house. all these actions failed because farmers were too poor or in debt due to prior sales. the system was poorly capitalized, prices were too high for farmers, they ended up being victims to business causing the uprising of boycotts. the subtreasary plan succeed this plan helped farmers by giving them loans in order to grow and sell crops. The back and forth communication and strategies not only lead the famers to a political path but it also began the start of the populist party.
Worster hints that capitalism is the root of all the problems during the Dust Bowl and is often mentioned throughout the book. For example, he frequently mentions the differences between suitcase farming and lifestyle farming and how they are affected by capitalism. Suitcase farmers are those who only farm for profit whereas lifestyle farming, the farmers care about the
The dependency theory is striking at the country which heavily relies on its mining sector for exports. Niger’s agricultural sector is deficient, unable to satisfy the population’s nutritional needs. The high fertility rate leads to low labor force in the country and there is a difficult access to education. As a result, Niger’s population remain significantly poor and its budget depends on an important foreign aid. This a paradox, since Niger has the necessary resources to boost its development.
Economic growth is important for all countries. However, countries such as Nicaragua are in dire need for development since most of its citizens live below the poverty line. By 2008, the country’s gross domestic product was approximated to be $17.37 billion USD. This makes Nicaragua one of the poorest countries in the world. Although the country’s main economic activity is farming, it is important to focus on some other fields as well, since they also contribute to the economy’s development.
It can be perfectly rational to migrate despite urban unemployment due to a positive expected income differential. Hagen-Zanker (2008) argued against this assumption as not having clear predictions and the significance of income differentials is undisputable in labour migration decision. Increased rural emigration certainly makes the rural areas depopulated and this affects the rural economy in general and agriculture in particular, which is the main economic activity in those areas. Migration from the rural areas causes changes in resources (labour and land resources) in the rural
Haiti, which was once the most lucrative agricultural colony of its time, is today ranked 145 out of 169 countries, according to the United Nations Human Development Index in 2010. In 2003, 80% of Haiti's population fell below the poverty line, a number that is likely to have increased since the earthquake in 2010. Their economy is based primarily in the agricultural sector, with the majority of production devoted to coffee, mangoes, sugarcane, rice, corn, and sorghum (CIA 2011). Though agriculture is a major part of the economy of Haiti, there is little governmental support for the agricultural sector. This has had a negative effect on Haitian food production because of the financial mandates imposed since the 1980's by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), including structural adjustment programs (SAPs).
However, the unprecedented levels of unemployment in South Africa combined with large number of “working poor” makes achieving food security challenging. The South Africa’s extensive social assistance programmes are recognised to contribute to reducing food insecurity and act as an important safety net for most poor and vulnerable households. Although the state has an ambitious plan to enhance employment in South Africa, mainly through short term public employment programmes, these are low paying jobs and hence cannot contribute effectively to addressing food and nutrition security. A further challenge is that fewer people in South Africa rely on access to land and involvement in agriculture to grow food for own consumption. Other challenges affecting food and nutrition security include high prices and the main concern is food price inflation that often exceeds the general inflation.