Seligman and Reichenberg (2014) admit that the causal factor for emotional distress stems from people’s inability to accept their feelings and impulses. When their ego defences fail to mediate between their drives and the demands of external reality to supress or modify unacceptable feelings, problematic anxiety arises. Brief psychodynamic therapy has borrowed from cognitive behavioural techniques; it is evident in Corey (2011) that the aim of brief psychodynamic therapy is not to bring cure but to foster changes in behaviour, thinking, and feeling; which is one of the main focus in cognitive behavioural therapy. It is a beginning of a process of change that will proceed after termination of
Sigmund Freud 's Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality Personality refers to individual differences in thinking, feeling and behaving patterns (American Psychological Association, 2016). To explain these differences, Sigmund Freud introduced the Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality. According to Freud, personality develops from the interaction between Structural Modal agencies: id, ego and superego (Magnavita, 2002). Interaction of agencies depends on ego strength, which refers to ego’s ability in effectively mediating between the id, superego and reality (Akhtar, 2009). High ego strength forms healthy personalities whilst low ego strength shapes maladaptive personalities.
Personality is, "the pattern of enduring characteristics that produce consistency and individuality in a given person" (pg. 438). In part, it is the behaviors that make us unique and set us apart from one another. It is also, what drives us to act consistently in a variety of settings. There are few different theories and approaches to understanding on personality and personality traits and why we behave the way we do Psychoanalytic theory is, Freud 's theory that, "unconscious forces act as determinants of personality" (pg.
Carl Jung, a Swiss psychiatrists, was interested in which symbols and common myths were able to seep into our thinking on both conscious and subconscious level. Initially working with an Austrian psychoanalyst, Sigmund Freud, in the late 1800s both agreed with the significance of recurring themes in people’s dreams. However, Jung and Freud took different paths with the disagreement of sexuality driving other’s personalities. He wrote The Personal and Collective Unconscious to demonstrates his views regarding the psyche and how it influenced other parts of other’s personalities. In contrast, Freud placed much emphasis on the sexual origins in his patients’ personalities and was unwilling to consider any other viewpoints.
Carl Jungʼs theory of psychological types was inspired by his differences with Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler. Jung thought that individual’s personality type influenced the kind of ideas they put forward. Psychological Types, Jungʼs famous work on theory of personality, was published in German in 1921 and English in 1923. In his book, there were several short pieces written by him on this topic throughout the 1920s and 1930s along with various seminars and other writings contain typological commentary and information in which his typology was presented as a theory of consciousness. In the context, he rejected the classical temperaments as they were about affects.
This book explored schizophrenia as a rational response to unbearable experiences. When he sat down to write the book in the late 1950s, the outlook in psychiatry was that the mind of an unbalanced person was just an amalgamation of senseless fantasies or obsessions. Patients were simply tested for certain symptoms of mental illness, and treated proportionately. His goal was “to make madness, and the process of going mad, comprehensible”, and he accomplished this by showing how psychosis – especially, that relating to schizophrenia - actually “makes sense to the person suffering it.” According to him, the psychiatrist on his/her part should simply get inside the mind of the sufferer. He very categorically pointed out that ‘The Divided Self’ was not a medically researched book rather a set of observations, clouded by existential philosophy, about the essence of schizophrenia.
This theory fights that condition is not a consider innovativeness. This is because of if the individual can meet the six fundamental needs they can then be imaginative. Creativity is crucial to our advancement and learning shapes and accordingly help us to impel ourselves inside society. Lovers of this theory confide in self-culmination empowers us to continue with a huge life and break out of social and social control transforming into a person instead of essentially one more face in the gathering (Adler, 2009). Adler battles that our central motivation for ingenuity is to compensate for a clear physical or insightful debilitate.
Help is provided to the clients to enable them strengthen their EGO and protect it from being in any conflict between their ID and SUPEREGO. This theory is used to rectify the client’s character and their system of personality if found to have issues. The theory aims at making the unconscious, conscious by releasing the repressed emotions and experiences. Psychoanalytic theory also aims at helping clients work through their developmental stages not previously resolved well to solve the problem of fixation. Basic Assumptions of Psychoanalytic Theory The first basic assumption of Psychoanalytic theory is that all mental processes are not spontaneous but are determined by the unconscious or pre-existing mental complexes.
Sigmund Freud was a physiologist, medical doctor, psychologist and influential thinker of the early twentieth century. He was commonly referred to as the father of psychoanalysis. He studied the mind and believed it to be a complex energy structure. Through his studies and treatments, he believed that "with psychoanalysis he had invented a successful science of the mind, remains the subject of much critical debate and controversy" (Thornton). "Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, explained the human mind as like an iceberg, with only a small amount of it being visible, that is our observable behavior, but it is the unconscious, submerged mind that has the most, underlying influence on our behavior.
In other words, self-control is an important concept in the pursuit of managing stress and burnout. McGonigal (2012), tells his readers that self-control is essential to make life meaningful. Self-control is the main driver of human willpower, the inner ability to overcome challenges of life. In fact, some difficult situations occur to test people’s inner strength and willpower. Self-control is connected with the understanding of failure, which upon overcoming makes one understand his or her ability to stand strong in the face of storms of life.