The prenatal diagnostics and prenatal screening being routine procedures should be considered as advantage of modern medicine. It helps to reveal wide spectrum of fetus abnormal conditions, but not only congenital defects and malformations. Early detection of many of them could help to perform surgical correction and necessary management as soon as possible in order to save newborns’ lives. On the other hand, this method is widely discussed and it has many opponents, and in some countries prenatal diagnostic procedures is not considered now as a screening method. Main ethical issues are terminations of pregnancies in case of malformations, which may be supposed as eugenical abortion, inform consent and problem of decision-making process.
• Question 4: How does the case of “John/Joan” (David Reimer) support the view of sex as a category based on nature? How does this case support the view of sex as socially constructed and enforced? Reading about the case of John/Joan it definitely supports the view of sex as a category of nature. When a child is born they are born as a female or male. When the parents and the doctor decided to do reconstructive surgery they took away David Reimer`s chance to decide who he wanted to be.
Some people assume that only women can become doctors but this typical gender stereotyping. However, people may even think that women might not be able to treat a patient correctly according to the illness the patient has. In fact even men can become doctors it doesn’t what matter what gender you are. Male and females should be treated both
With many physicians in this specific field, most of the discoveries emerged as a progress in a way of understanding our physical structure.Vesalius confined the human body in describing both male and female structures through detailed and precise illustrations and also through adding arguments in which he fulfils in unnatural circumstances in the view of early modern dissection. Through attending the dissection himself he provides various educational matter in order to furthermore comprehend the analogy of the body. Taking the female structure, he discovers that the analogy seems to combine and resemble the male body but differentiates in sexual organs. Through this discovery, he mostly apprehends that the female body leads to an insignificance due to the stereotype created towards the woman in the early modern period. Although Vesalius took a more coherent approach to the male anatomy compared to others, he presumed to depict the female structure through the disclosure of her internal organs creating an advancement in anatomy portrayed through the physical access of the human
At this point, her infatuation with Charcot ends. Augustine had inveigled him into noticing her, and used his knowledge, with great self-awareness, in the service of her individuation. Note that throughout her period of exploration, she seemed powerless and needy. However, once she was able to free her desires and in turn create a discourse of knowledge around them, she lost her position as a needy and repressed patient and in some incidence actually became the character with the position of power. In fact, the argument may be extended up to a level whereby the force of feminine sexuality is what deprives a man from his ‘inherent’ position of authority.
Western ideas of feminized beauty have lasted for centuries and continues to plague women in society with its idealistic standards. In recent years, Asian American women have undergone surgeries in order to alter their eyelids, heighten their noses and alter the tips of their noses. In Eugenia Kaw’s essay Medicalization of Racial Features: Asian American Women and Cosmetic Surgery (1993), she takes a look at the cultural and institutionalized forces that drive Asian American women to alter their features through plastic surgery in order to escape gendered stereotypical norms and racial ideologies through an anthropological lens. Racial and gender stereotypes influenced many of the Asian American women in Kaw’s study to receive these cosmetic surgeries. Beauty had become a primary goal for these women and felt that they had to conform to the typical standard of beauty in society.
A lot of questions arise with respect to one’s morality and values. The job is so dejected by the culture and the people that one has to even skin their profession from their own relatives and even the loved ones. The moment one recognises a Sex Worker is the moment that can destroy one’s career, one’s social life and even the peace of mind. The manner in which one tackles with the complications that tag along the label of a sex worker is also interrelated to the kind of background one comes from. It would be an easier task to answer a society that can be really open-minded and western to accept a woman in a pleasure seeking job to make a living but to the same within a society that satisfies the younger generation with an response like “A child is born with the God’s Grace and nothing more”, sex education and sex as a profession cannot really be seen as an option!
However, this can also work against the authoritative position that doctors hold. If someone with a PhD preforms malpractice the audience is easily angered because a medical doctor is someone who all should be able to trust. While the nursing students where observing the medical staff during clinicals a student reported of “a doctor performed frequent and unnecessary vaginal examinations to improve his practice skills” (pg. 593). By using credibility the author was able to support the purpose of their article to inform the audience of malpractice and ethical conflicts in the medical
Outside of the brothers’ own discomfort surrounding the idea of sex and pregnancy, these cultural beliefs could have played a large role in the edition differences (Tartar, 1987, p. 8). Gender norms of that era were harsh, strictly dictating a woman’s behavior and appearance. There was a high value on domestic duties and elevated moral grounds (Hughes, n.d.). Concerning marriage, a woman should not seek out a husband, as that would show a sexual appetite, which society heavily stigmatized within that era. Women held the expectation to only desire a marriage due to motherhood, without any urge for sexual or emotional gratification (Hughes, n.d.).
Virginia Woolf in her essay, “In Search of a Room of One’s Own” is astonished by the scarcity of women authors the Elizabethan period and is thus determined to find the causalities of this enigma. She makes clear the deficit of literature produced by female writers is an outcome of the male-dominated culture of the time, which entailed considerable difficulty for women to accomplish anything more than of those roles prescribed by society. I find Woolf 's arguments to be credible to the fullest, albeit it would have been preferable if she spoke of the male-female divide in more detail. On a related note, Anna Quindlen 's "Between the Sexes, a Great Divide" is a formidable choice for exemplifying the complexities of this bisection. In her essay,