Ernest Rutherford 1898 Ernest Rutherford was the founder and investigator of the nucleus. Henry Moseley, Hans Geiger and Albert Beaumont Wood influenced Rutherford. He later discovered that Thomson’s model wasn’t correct and in 1911 Rutherford used his well-known gold foil experiment to prove that the atom holds a very small heavy nucleus. His experiment was designed to use alpha particles released by a radioactive element as probes to the unseen parts of atomic structure. Rutherford's experiment shows how scientists must never just accept the current theories and models but they should always be putting to new tests and experiments to the test.
These metals have only one electron in their outer shell. This means they are ready to lose that one electron in ionic bonding with other elements. As with all metals, the alkali metals are malleable, ductile, and are good conductors of heat and electricity. The alkali metals are softer than most other metals. Cesium and francium are the most reactive elements in this group.
As mentioned in answer to question to 2b, ionic compounds have free mobile ions for conduction of electricity only in the molten state and in aqueous state. Hence, given substance is most likely to be ionic as it exhibits conductance only in these states. In addition to that, it has high melting point, which is characteristic of ionic compounds.  4) A lustrous grey – white solid melts at 1650°C. It is electrically conductive as both a solid and a liquid, but not soluble in either water or any organic solvent.
He stated that electrons could only orbit at certain distances from the nucleus and that when electrons moved between these orbitals the atom would release energy if the electron moved down an “energy level” and absorb energy when they moved up. His model named the ‘Bohr model’ showed the atom as a nucleus, represented by a circle, and the electrons orbiting around in their energy levels. In 1920 however the Bohr model appeared to have some problems it only sufficed roughly when applied to some of the heavier elements. Bohr and a German called Arnold Sommerfeld developed a new model that suggested that orbitals had certain shapes and tilt this new model was more in line with experimental data from that time. These states that the orbitals could exist in were given ‘Quantum numbers’ that related to the orbital, its shape and its
The reduction of ethyne occures in an exceedinglyn ammonical solution of chromous chloride or in a solution of chromous salts in H2SO4. The selective catalytic hydrogenation of ethyne to ethylene, that yield over supported Group eight metal catalyst, is of nice industrial importance within the manufacture of ethyne by thermal transformation of organic compound. HALOGENATION AND HYDROHALOGENATION Halogens add to the triple bond.Fecl3 catalyzes the addition of cl2 to ethyne to produce 1,1,2,2-tetrachloromethane that is intermediate within the production of the commercial solvents 1,2-dichloroethylene,trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene. ethyne will be chlorinated to 1,2 –dichloroethylene by directly using FeCl3 as a catalyst and a large excess ethyne trans-C2H2Cl2 is made from ethyne in solutions of CuCl2,CuCl and HCl. Br in solution or as a liquid adds to ethyne to create first 1,2-dibromoethylene and eventually tetrabromoethylene.
Neodymium is a chemical element with symbol Nd and atomic number 60. It is a soft silvery metal that tarnishes in air. Neodymium was discovered in 1885 by the Austrian chemist Carl Auer von Welsbach. It is present in significant quantities in the ore minerals monazite and bastnäsite. Neodymium is not found naturally in metallic form or unmixed with other lanthanides, and it is usually refined for general use.
After James Chadwick’s discovery of the neutron, Heisenberg developed a 3-part article on the model of the nucleus in 1932. This popularly came to be known as the neutron-proton model of the nucleus. Part I of the paper established a theoretical apparatus which was used to develop which was used to develop various parts of nuclear semantics. Part II and III helped solve stability problems of the nucleus using the method of self-consistent fields. His papers threw light on that fact that the nucleus consisted of heavy nucleons.
An increase in the energy of light did not have the same result as an increase in the intensity of light. Because of this, the scientists then tried to discover new laws which also applied to the atomic world. These laws together came to be known as Quantum
The molecular lattice/framework holds separate diatomic molecules which is existent in both molten and gaseous states – which means that its reactivity with heat causes it to sublimate from solid’s to vapor. Iodine’s properties consists a melting point of 113.5 degree Celsius and a boiling point of 184.35 degree Celsius. Iodine is the most beautiful and striking of all elements. As it’s a solid, when heated, it doesn’t melt, but it sublimes instead. The result of iodine vapor consists of a violet color and a strong odor that is irritating to a human’s sense of smell.
Writing exercise Haines et al., A neutron diffraction study of quartz-type FePO4: high-temperature behavior and α-β phase transition Z. Kristallogr. 218, 193-200 (2003). Paragraph 1 FePO4 containing ferric iron and dihydrate in majority is commonly used in batteries. The colour of hydrated FePO4 is nearly white or slightly yellowish, it turns more yellow when water is lost and become white-yellowish powder when dehydrated. It is a quartz-type iron structured as α-quartz, a tetrahedral structure, in relatively low temperature.