However, many people argues that urban poor represent a force for revolutionary change. Therefore, according to Teitz & Chapple (1998) emphasize that Inner-city poverty is a reflection of the inadequate human capital of the labor force, which results in lower productivity and inability to compete for employment in emerging sectors that pay adequate wages. And also Inner-city poverty is the result of profound structural economic shifts that have eroded the competitive position of the central cities in the industrial sectors that historically provided employment for the working poor, especially minorities. Thus demand for their labor has declined disastrously. Initially, the process was driven primarily by technological and market changes that rendered inner-city locations for manufacturing less profitable (Vernon, 1960).
Countries all over the world are facing the problems of a high urban sprawl, the phenomenon that urban spatial patterns changes into large outward expansions of low density areas (Burchell et al, 2000). Urban sprawl has serious consequences to a good quality of live in the whole city. For instance the average journey time from work to shopping- or residential areas becomes larger because of the urban sprawl. This also leads to other side-effects as pollution and accidents, problems with the facilitation of public transportation in low density areas and many, many more. This negatively effects the quality of life, especially in US-city’s where this problem often occurs.
Never the less, the lower society, was being utilized for urban developments despite the fact they were unhappy and distressful. Actually, Queen Victoria wanted justice and moral yet there was an obvious inequality between the middle class of the abundance of money they have and the lower class which continued in poverty. Meanwhile, it was a challenge to the artist and intellectual class, to express these differences of social changes in their artworks. Another aspect of that century was the expansion of the British power. Perhaps a significant evidence to power started in the eighteen century
Although highly populated cities bring together many different cultures and resources, they simultaneously lead to overcrowding. Overcrowding severely impacts society as it inevitably leads to many issues, including poverty, higher crime rates, and inadequate educational systems. Poverty Poverty is one of the most impactful social concerns caused by overcrowding, primarily because it tends to contribute to other social issues such as crime rates and poor education systems. The truth is, people from nearby developments and immigrants are attracted to well-developed cities
India’s government in the role of political instability and unequal opportunities is significant in the cause of poverty in India. When we take a quick glance at India, we see a country of growing wealth. India’s poverty has been a long going issue as their democracy continues to struggle with the corruption in politics. Even though India is advancing with their economic powers, the democratically elected government isn 't doing much to help with increasing poverty rates. In fact, high poverty rates are a direct result of political corruption in India.
Urban sprawl results in overcrowding and consequently, unemployment. The root cause is inadequate housing facilities and improper planning methods. I always wondered how these urban deficiencies could be resolved. Over the years, I learnt that a wise combination of policy, economics and design can resolve urban concerns like unsustainable growth, economic depravity and sprawl. A career in urban planning will apprise me of the needs of the society and will aid in building realistic and vibrant places
I am interested in politics and economics because when I finish university, I would like to contribute to global issues that I studied in geography class such as poverty and disparities by finding solutions to them. This interest has arise as a result of my experiences in Thailand. Despite the rapid economic development, which can be clearly seen in newly-opened, luxury, department stores and expensive, new, high-rise apartment buildings, economic disparity in the country is a problem, as just a few percent of population holds high proportion of the national wealth whereas a lot of people are suffering from poverty. I often recognize urban poverty, such as homeless people and begging people on streets in Bangkok. Also, I have witnessed the difference in life standard in Northern Thailand area when I went to Chaing Rai for volunteer work.
Again, red tape and corruption are not uncommon in this area. (ibid) Another challenge that was identified is zoning restrictions that forbid vertical building, but render important central areas with often low population density and ample infrastructure a very expensive housing option for the urban poor. The bane of this kind of system is that even though it is creating highly desirable neighbourhoods, such as Vitacura in Santiago, Polanco in Mexico City and Jardins in São Paulo, it also encourages the horizontal spread of the city, leading to inevitable peri-urban settlements. (Torres, 2007) In summary, the foundation of ill-regulated land use seems to significantly erode the possibilities of traditional urban environmental policies in large cities of developing countries. It is no doubt that if these rules were enforced, they would discourage migration to peri-urban areas, since the costs of housing would increase significantly for newcomers.
With more than half the world’s population now living in urban areas (54 per cent), (World Urbanization Prospects, 2014), many experts believe urbanisation is a major contributor of unsustainable resource demands in addition to contributing to rising levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Meanwhile, in developing nations, urbanization has long outstripped local governments’ capacities as seen in the high proportion of the urban population living in poor standards, sanitation, healthcare, air pollution, overcrowding and education. (Satterthwaite, 2011). This essay aims to discuss effects of urbanisation that are positive and negative in nature and examine different types of urbanization which are notably reurbanization, suburbanization, counter-urbanization,
ARTICLE REVIEW ON THE BOOK AN UNCERTAINITY GLORY- INDIA & ITS CONTRADICTIONS FOR THE CHAPTER ACCOUNTABILITY AND CORRUPTION COURSE- DIFFERENCE IN ECONOMIC INSTITUTION SUBMITTED TO PROF. RAJKISHAN NAIR BY TSHERING DOLMA GURUNG MIB_MDM Economic Institution are a specific agencies for both government and private , meant for studying economic data and deals with the job of supplying a good or service that is important to the economy of a country. India is growing very fast economically thus it has become difficult to ignore the role of economic institution in shaping how people behave in Indian economy. Institutions are severely stressed and weak in India thus it is very important to come up with proper rules and regulations for economic institution,