Annotated Bibliography: Racial Profiling

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Annotated Bibliography: Racial Profiling This is an annotated bibliography researching the reasons for, effects of, and solutions to racial profiling by law enforcement in the United States. I am researching racial profiling and is it justified in law enforcement.
Bou-habib, Paul. "Racial Profiling and Background Injustice." The Journal of Ethics, vol. 15, no. 1-2, 2011., pp. 33-46. Nclive, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10892-010-9091-x. Paul Bou-Habib of the Department of Government at the University of Essex in the United Kingdom, presents this paper as a discussion of what he terms “background injustice” and racial profiling. He basically defines “background injustices”as social injustices over which the individual has no control within his profiled group. Bou-Habib suggests two accounts of background injustice. First is “responsible injustice”wherein the group proposing racial profiling is responsible for the injustice.The second account is “expressive harm” in which the person being profiled by the vividness of the harm. He concludes that there is a
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"Racial Profiling and Criminal Justice." The Journal of Ethics, vol. 15, no. 1-2, 2011., pp. 79-88. Nclive, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10892-010-9098-3. Jesper Ryberg, a professor in the Department of Philosophy and Science Studies at the University of Roskilde, Denmark, questions the use of racial profiling as a way of reducing crime. He also examines the ethics of the criminal justice system in its degree or levels of punishment for certain crimes. His first contention is that when racial profiling is used by law enforcement as a means of reducing crime, there will be a disproportionate number of that ethnic group charged and punished for crimes. That certainly will reduce some crimes. However, that leaves the majority group with more liberties and freedoms to commit more crimes. Therefore, there is no

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