The effect of pH on the speed of enzyme interaction with substrate chemicals Hypothesis: About pH: If the pH level is less than 5, then the speed of the enzyme reaction will be slower. About temperature: If the temperature stays the same, then the speed of the enzyme reaction will not be completely affected. Background information: The function of enzymes is to speed up the biochemical reaction by lowering the activation energy, they do this by colliding with the substrate. All enzymes are under the class of protein biomolecule. Amino acids are the basic units that are combined to make up an enzyme.
Discussion The ideal Van't Hoff factor for potassium chloride is 2, because the compound dissociates into its ions, K+ and Cl-. The greater the Van't Hoff factor means the more a compound lowers the freezing point temperature of the solvent it dissolves in. For a liquid to freeze it must form a lattice, a three-dimensional arrangement of particles that make up a crystalline solid, and the presence of solute particles interferes with the ability of the solvent particles to form a lattice. To compensate the system must be brought to an even lower temperature to freeze, and the more particles that are present within the solvent, the larger that freezing point depression becomes.3 Thus, the obtained value of 2.05 means that potassium chloride lowered
However, all proteins are constructed from the same set of 20 amino acids linked in unbranched polymers. The covalent bond that exists between amino acids is called peptide bond, hence a polymer of amino acids is named polypeptide. A protein is a biological functional molecule made up of one or more polypeptides which is folded and coiled into unique three-dimensional structure. In laboratory, it is important to measure the concentration of proteins for research investigations. Biuret test is adopted to quantify proteins in fluid by using a spectrophotometer.
The sucrose of the Sugar Candy is able to dissolve in the water because of exactly this, it has many polar groups that carry partial charges and fit into their inter molecular gaps of the water molecules. It is now obvious that sugar will dissolve in water, and why, but for the hypothesis to be answered it must be able to dissolve faster at higher temperatures every single time. The hypothesis is true as the outcome of the experiment mirrors what is stated in the hypothesis. The reason that the sugar is able to dissolve faster at higher temperatures has to do with energy, specifically kinetic energy. Kinetic energy is energy that exists due to the movement of particles.
The effectiveness was based on the color scale. The color scale was based on amount of oxygen produced by the chemical reaction.The chemical guaiacol was used during the experiment to easily see the speed of the chemical reaction because guaiacol turns brown in the presence of oxygen. On average the pH 8 had a color level of 6.17 more at the 5 minute check than pH 3. This is because the acidic pH 3 denatured the enzyme and it was not able to bind with the substrate to produce oxygen therefore there was less of it. Another factor that can affect the chemical reaction is temperature.
Pharming What is pharming? The term "pharming" comes from a combination of the words "farming" and "pharmaceuticals." Gene pharming is a technology that scientists use to alter an animal's own DNA, In pharming, these genetically modified (transgenic) animals are used mostly to make human proteins that have medicinal value. The protein encoded by the transgene is secreted into the animal's milk, eggs, or blood, and then collected and purified. Livestock such as cattle, sheep, goats, chickens, rabbits, and pigs have already been modified in this way to produce several useful proteins and drugs.
Large molecules in a solution will bypass it since they are too large to fit or adsorb to the pores. On the other hand, smaller molecules will get trapped in the pores, thus leaving the column at a much smaller rate than the larger molecules. In borrelidin, the filtrate was extracted with ethyl acetate. This filtrate then underwent gel filtration chromatography, where the stationary phase here is Sephadex LH-20, a soft gel used to separate proteins, and the mobile phase, also known here as the elution solvent, is methanol. The last step in the traditional purification of borrelidin is reverse phase chromatography.
The membrane structure is determined by the lipid bilayer, and proteins determine the membrane functions. The membrane has a lipid bilayer containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions. This bilayer blocks hydrophilic substances from passing while still allowing water diffusion. This allows oxygen and carbon dioxide molecules, both lipid-soluble molecules, to diffuse through the bilayer easily. Water molecules, due to their small size,
Pepsin will digest polypeptides in the stomach turning it into dipeptides and amino acids. Water is required for hydrolysis to occur, which is the breaking down of the peptide bonds joining amino acids together. Pepsin works best between pH levels 1 to 3, as this would be the normal acidity range of the gastric juice. Changing the pH level can also change the shape of the proteins being digested, and this process is called denaturing. For this experiment 8% pepsin solution was used as the average of the secretion of pepsin in the gastric juice per meal is about 8% to 18%.
7. Glucose: This too is not usually found in urine and if so in very small or trace amounts. It found in higher amounts it indicates high blood sugar levels from spillage or kidney damage. 8. Nitrates: Nitrates in urine indicate the presence of a UTI that is caused by a bacteria that makes an enzyme turn urinary nitrates into nitrates.