Stylohyoid ligament is attached to the lesser horn, the hyoid bone is suspended with long stylohyoid ligaments from the styloid process of the temporal bone of the outer skull base and maintains the position of the hyoid bone(4)(1). Anatomically the hyoid is composed of a body, two greater cornua and two lesser cornua. Each cornu is attached to the body by syn- chondrosis that calcifies with ageing. The tip of the cornu are directed postero-laterally. The important attachments of the hyoid are myelohyoid, omohyoid, thyorohyoid and stylohyoid(1).
These are used for looking of impacted teeth, examine development of the jaws in relation to the teeth, and to recognize potential problems between teeth and jaw and the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) or other bones of the face. Types of intraoral X-rays: 1.1 Bite-wing X-rays To show details of the upper and lower teeth from area of the mouth . All bite-wing illustrate a tooth starting its crown to as regards the altitude of the behind bone. These are used to identify decay between teeth and changes in bone density reason through gum disease. They are also useful in determining the suitable fit of a crown (or cast restoration) and the marginal integrity of
They are inserted in the jawbone where teeth are missing. The post serves as an anchor in the absence of a tooth root. What is the surgical procedure? For most, two separate oral surgery procedures are involved. First, your oral surgeon places the implants in the jawbone, allowing three to six months to allow the gums to bond with the jawbone.
4b). Sequential concentric lamellae have alternate fiber orientations with each other, spiralling around the central canal . These fundamental units are aligned on the direction in which force is applied to bone, and the concentric layers give bone tissue an extra resistance to breaking, as a crack cannot be easily spread from lamellae to lamellae. Figure 4: a) Hierarchical structure of bone ranging from the macroscale skeleton to nanoscale collage and HA. Nair, A.K., et al., Molecular mechanics of mineralized collagen fibrils in bone.
Endochondral ossification and long bone growth in humans Endochondral ossification is the process in which the embryonic cartilaginous model of most bones, which supplies the longitudinal growth and is slowly replaced by bone. Endochondral ossification allows a growing bone to bare weight during its development. The endochondral process of ossification provides a framework for a more rigid skeletal material. Long bones of the limbs and ribs develop by endochondral ossification. Characteristics of endochondral ossification include, the presence of a hyaline cartilage model of the bone and the presence of cartilage, along with the bone during the ossification process.
Eventually the spaces are eliminated and immature compact bone is produced. Compact bone Compact bone or Cortical Bone as it is also known, is biologically identical to cancellous bone, the difference is in how the microstructure is arranged. It is a dense bone where the bony matrix is solidly filled with organic ground substance and inorganic salts leaving only tiny spaces that contain the osteocytes (bone cells). Cortical bone forms the extremely hard exterior of bones, it forms a shell around cancellous bone and is the primary component of the long bones of the arm, leg and other bones where its
If you are particularly prone to cavities, you might also be prescribed a fluoride gel or mouthwash to use. If so, make sure you are using it as directed to keep your gums and teeth around the crown healthy. 4. Avoid Grinding Finally, make sure that you avoid grinding your teeth—especially if your crowned tooth is a molar. Grinding your teeth is harsh on your teeth, and even more so on your crowned tooth.
This condition ought to vanish in a matter of seconds, however it could keep going for a couple of hours, day, or even months. Be that as it may, in uncommon cases it may keep going for over 6 months or may even in uncommon cases be permanent. Permanent paresthesia is extremely uncommon and just happens in 0.5-0.9% of wisdom tooth
Introduction: • One of the fundamental objectives of operative dentistry is to preserve the health of a dental pulp. • Pulp is a soft tissue that occupies the pulp chamber, and is dependent on the normal hard dentin for protection. • Various restorative materials and dental procedures can irritate pulp. • To protect the pulp from different irritants, various pulp defensive agents are being used. Pulpal Irritants: If leakage of chemical irritants from biomaterials or microorganisms (bacteria) occurs This cause irritation to the pulp Various types of irritants: • Bacterial irritants: Is the most common cause for pulpal irritation and their products which may enter the pulp by: • Accidental exposure • Fracture • Caries • Periodontal
Out of all the theories only two have been widely accepted. First is the phylogenetic theory as a regression of the anthropoids whose dentition had more teeth and second is the autonomic recessive inheritance or linked to the x chromosome, an abnormal reaction to the local traumatic episode, environmental factors, dichotomy of the tooth germ and the theory of hyperactivity of the dental lamina.  Mesiodens can be classified into 2 subclasses, according to
Background Research Teeth come in different shapes and sizes and everyones ' teeth are different. However all teeth have a few things in common- they all have three main layers; Enamel, Dentin, and Pulp. Enamel is the very hard protective shell on the visible part or crown of your tooth. It can withstand chewing and biting but is brittle and can chip/break easily. Dentin consists of a substance that is similar to bone, it is underneath the enamel and gives your teeth their color.