In the essay, “A Genealogy of Modern Racism”, the author Dr. Cornel West discusses racism in depth, while conveying why whites feel this sense of superiority. We learn through his discussion that whites have been forced to treat black harshly due to the knowledge that was given to them about the aesthetics of beauty and civility. This knowledge that was bestowed on the whites in the modern West, taught them that they were superior to all races tat did not emulate the norms of whites. According to Dr. West the very idea that blacks were even human beings is a concept that was a “relatively new discovery of the modern West”, and that equality of beauty, culture, and intellect in blacks remains problematic and controversial in intellectual circles
Male way of thinking becomes socially acceptable so the male sex turns into a central force in society based on notions of gender. Gender, as a social formation, deals with femininity as a form of suppression. Feminist of the era felt that they need to modify the conventional image of the female form in art. Mary Russo, author of Female Grotesques: Carnival and Theory, writes, The grotesque body is the open, protruding, extended, secreting body, the body of becoming, process and change. The grotesque body is opposed to the classical body, which is monumental, static, closed and sleek, corresponding to the aspirations of bourgeois individualism; the grotesque body is connected to the rest of the
On the contrary, Judith Butler emphasizes gender as social norms. As a philosopher, Butler draws from psychoanalysis and literature. She claims we all detach ourselves from our attributes and explains what the trouble with gender is: it is a social construct; looks at what we put importance on, and it has strict binaries. Butler presents the idea of gender as performance or gender performative; to say gender is performative, means it produces a series of effects. The phenomenon produces and reproduces all the time; she makes a controversial claim that nobody is born one gender or the other.
Butler points out that Irigaray's assumption that all discourse and logic is a phallocentric construct does not account for cultural and historical differences in gender relations. Consequently, to claim that all ontological structures are masculinist risks appropriating all cultures under one global thought structure in the same way that her concept of phallocentric does. Butler further posits that appropriating and suppressing another, while utilized in a masculinist domain, is not--as Irigaray believes--exclusive to a masculinist
Patriarchy presents the roles of men and women in a distinct form. Men are expected to be the dominant leader, strong, protector and sole provider where as women are subverted to the role of domestic duties, raring of children and fulfilling her man’s every desire without question or comment. In Lynn Nottage’s play Poof!, she brilliantly portrays the roles of men and women, and experiments with the concept of changing gender roles that are characteristic of our society. Overtime, the patriarchal system has been challenged and the defined gender roles are in the process of being eradicated. By presenting the plays protagonist Loureen, as an abuse victim that finds her voice and stands up against her battery, Lynn brilliantly illustrates that
In The Second Sex, Simone de Beauvoir writes that “from patriarchy’s earliest times [men] have deemed it useful to keep woman in a state of dependence” (193), and indeed, nowhere is this intent more evident than in William Shakespeare’s Hamlet. The Elizabethans were a deeply patriarchal society; women were expected to be meekly subordinate and as such were deprived of any legal independence or right to self-expression. Accordingly, the characters of Hamlet, most notably the titular character, often express extraordinarily misogynistic views. Logically, it would follow that Hamlet’s female characters—Gertrude and Ophelia—would be one-dimensional and submissive, serving only to further Hamlet’s story. However, in actuality, both women defy the traditional Elizabethan standard of femininity—Gertrude in her sexuality, and Ophelia in her madness—serving to create tension in the story and elicit unease in the audience.
Gender roles are constructed by society and attributed to women or men. In the book of vindication of the right of a woman, Wollstonecraft brings out clearly the roles of a woman in her society and how it has led to oppression of women (Wollstonecraft 22). Wollstonecraft believes that men and women are equal given the same environment and empowerment, women can do anything a man can do. In her society, education for women is only aimed at making her look pleasing to men. Women are treated as inferior being and used by men as sex objects.
This novel subtly shows the difference between the values ascribed to male and female traits in which man’s needs take precedence over women’s needs. Deshpande subverts stereotypical conventional ideals of motherhood, femininity, and masculinity. She shows both male and female sexes transcending their gender attributed traits. Female characters in this novel- Kalyani, Sumi, Aru exhibit masculine traits which are conventionally associated with males, on the other hand male characters- Shripati and Gopal, who escape their duty and responsibility towards their families, unveil feminine traits. Vinay Kirpal also is of the opinion that “Deshpande’s protagonists generally seek to come out of their tradional beliefs” (Geethamala, 196).
Julie speaks about the origin of gender, the social construct of gender versus the biological aspect of gender. Julie states that gender is simply a classification of male and female. Gender roles assigned in order to justify or excuse work ability. For example, the assigned role of a female to give birth or for a male to work. There is a difference between sex and gender.
Certainly, there were key radical special cases individuals like Frances Wright and Robert Dale Owen who were attracted to the Democracy's reason. North and South, the democratic changes accomplished by plebeian whites particularly those regarding voting and representation took a swing at the direct cost of free blacks. Albeit educated by sacred standards and real paternalist concern, the Jacksonian basis for regional development expected that Indians (and, in a few ranges, Hispanics) were lesser people groups. Concerning slavery, the Jacksonians were dead set, on both down to earth and ideological grounds, to keep the issue out of national issues. Few standard Jacksonians had moral doubts about dark subjugation or any craving to intrude with it where it existed.
In Radical feminism I desire to find that gender and patriarchy spread female segregation. The studies are to prove the idea of current gender roles; as 'natural ', and therefore unchangeable, is mistaken, how and why segregation occurs and that irrespective of feminist movement, sexual equality is a goal worth striving for within the context of
It is important to recognize that race is still a major factor in people’s life chances, though, so Bonilla-Silva gives some strategies to use to fight color-blind racism’s erasure of race. The author first calls on the blacks and their allies to start a new civil rights movement that calls out the new form of racism. Second, antiracist whites need to be encouraged to start challenging color-blindness when they see it happening within their race. This step also includes persuading working class whites to join the movement. Third, researchers and activists need to provide counter-ideological arguments to each of color-blind racism’s frames.
He also felt that the issue of blacks not having equal opportunities in politics was not a contradiction. This was important, because as Fredrickson pointed out, “Lincoln did not believe he had a moral right to deprecate the opinion of his countrymen which denied political equality to Negroes. To have done so would have mean denying the right of white men to judge the conditions under which their government could best secure their rights. But the Declaration of Independence asserts that the people have an indefeasible right to judge the security of their rights, and Lincoln could not deny the legitimacy of their judgment concerning the status to be accorded the Negro without denying that
Law currently allows “intermediate scrutiny” for gender discrimination and “strict scrutiny” for discrimination based on race. This idea allows government to create affirmative action programs for women more easily than for minorities even though the Equal Protection Clause original purpose was to protect slaves from discrimination. A Court fixated on abstract principles is in danger of ignoring common sense. The Court’s idea of “congruence” means a Congressional affirmative action program and state affirmative action program are the same. Important differences are completely disregarded.