Cause And Effects Of Earthquake Pollution

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1. INTRODUCTION Liquefaction and related phenomena have been responsible for tremendous amounts of damage in historical earthquakes to residential structures all around the world. Liquefaction occurs in saturated soils, that soils in which the space between individual particles is completely filled with water called pore water. This water exerts as a pore water pressure on the soil particles that influence how tightly the particles themselves are pressed together. Prior to an earthquake, the water pressure is relatively low. However, earthquake shaking can cause the water pressure to increase to the point where the soil particles can readily move with respect to each other. When liquefaction occurs, the strength of the soil decreases and, the ability of a soil deposit to support foundations for buildings and bridges are reduced. Liquefied soil also exerts higher pressure on retaining walls, which can cause them to tilt or slide. This movement can cause settlement of the retained soil and destruction of structures on the ground surface. Increased water pressure can also trigger landslides and cause the collapse of dams. Because of liquefaction occurs in saturated soil, its effects are most commonly observed in low-lying areas near bodies of water such as rivers, lakes, and oceans. There are basically some possibilities to reduce liquefaction hazards when designing and constructing new structures. The first possibility is to avoid construction on liquefaction susceptible

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