Corruption can be found anywhere at any time. Even dating back to the Mesopotamia Era, there has been corruption found within society. Nowadays, however, corruption has been mostly discovered in the government. Even though numerous countries’ governments are filled to the brim with corruption, Mexico’s corruption is a major world concern because it affects superpowers. Corruption within Mexico’s government is mainly due to the long drug war and police officers betraying the system.
Theoretical Backgrounds Bribery is perhaps the most traditional form of corruption that occurred on a routine basis throughout the business world. According to the World Bank (2004), bribes paid out by businesses, and other parties cost them above one trillion dollars a year, more than three percent of the total estimated world economy. Companies are not the only ones that involve in bribery, of course, but businesses have been singled out as one of the leading suppliers of the bribes that are paid today to corrupt government officials (Transparency International, 1997). Moreover, arranging, paying, and monitoring bribes are a time-intensive activity, so bribery also imposes massive non-monetary costs on businesses. Bribery is also increasingly
Probably the two most corruption in the field would be economic and political. Economic corruption is where you sacrifice of the principal's interest for the agent's interest (Vargas-Hernandez). This is where you are making a profit for your personal interest. Political corruption is where an agent abuse their power. Under these categories the forms of corruption is sexual misconduct, professional courtesy, gratuities and grafts.
Corruption is a pandemic problem that cuts across all cultures around the world. However, some societies have reduced corruption to a minimum by using several strategies while others struggle with the consequences of the vice. This paper examines the types of corruption practices, causes of corruption, consequences of corruption and propose collective and individual strategies to deal with the problem. Corruption has been defined in different ways. Scholars define corruption as the abuse of entrusted power for private gain at the expense of the public good (Karklins 2002).
Integrity and accountability issues in policing is one of the reasons why the community feel unsafe and bias towards police officers because of the physical abuse of some police officers who are careless and abused of their power. Another issue is prisoner mistreatment, there are many people who have been incarcerated and are victims of abuse emotionally, physically, and mentally by correctional officers. Finally, corruption is problem because personal gain is a primary motivation for all criminal behavior because of the special trust and responsibilities placed in police officers the opportunities for them to abuse that trust to obtain money or advantage are considerable. Therefore, these are some reasons why the public have no trust in the police officers which is understandable, but as a community we need to also understand and be aware that not every police officers are bad there good ones too and we must treat them and everyone with
5. Recommendations Public corruption tends to be much lower in developed countries and, especially, in those that have three characteristics: a greater number of years of democratic experience, a greater level of political alternation at different levels of government and a more efficient judicial system. In short, corruption is a symptom of economic, political and institutional problems fundamental Fight with effectiveness corruption means addressing those basic causes. Attention must be paid priority to prevention, that is, to the reform of economic policies, institutions and incentives. Below in Figure 2, there are some of the important policy changes that will simply reduce the Corruption opportunities in any
Corruption is rampant; it has become embedded in the fabric of society. Since the country 's transition to democracy in 1999, there have been attempts to fight corruption with several reforms undertaken and institutions created. They include the establishment of anti-corruption agencies such as the Economic and Financial Crime Commission, Independent Corruption and other Practices Commission, and the National Financial Intelligence Unit. Reforms include public service reform, monetization to reduce waste and personnel, and reform of public procurement. Nevertheless, it is disturbing to note that the prevailing state of corrupt practices in Nigeria suggests that corruption itself is more institutionalised than the anti-graft agencies established to curb it.
Corruption, unfortunately, has found its way to the very basic roots of our nation. No institution remains untouched by corruption. Whether the institution is a basic place such as a Gram Panchayat office or a bigger institution like a central ministry; corruption exists everywhere. Infact, as per recent media reports even institutions, which were formerly known for their impeccable integrity, like the armed forces and the judiciary, both higher and lower, have seen major cases of corruption. It is extremely disheartening to note that in almost all big and small government procurements and allotments made in the past few years, there have been allegations of favoritism and bribery.