Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England deeply examine several changes that occurred in the new land after invasion made by colonists. Thus, changes affected not only the people but also the environment. The shift of dominance from Indian dominance to European dominance stated in the book. Moreover, the effect of this dominance on the environment and culture of the original inhabitants and most of them coming from Indian origin is stated by Cronon. There were fundamental notable reorganizations in how things were generally done after an invasion by settlers. Notable too was the fact that there were significant changes in the land. People started seeing animals, pants and ground as commodities,
In the 17th centuries early settlers came to America in the hope of taking their custom and traditions forward. However, the environment and geography brought changes to their lifestyles. Soon, people became to alter their pattern of living in the different colonies. During the 17th and 18th centuries, geography and the environment profoundly influenced the economic development and overall health and success of the two regions called the Chesapeake and the New England, which began to form in the early 17th century.
Although England learned of America’s existence years before their Jamestown settlement was established, there did not exist any accurate map of the Virginian geography until after the settlement had already been established. As a consequence of this, many settlements started on the American coastline and developed from there, yet these settlements would still struggle to exist while the colonists became familiar with their new found surroundings. Being unfamiliar with the environment, the first settlers had a difficult time navigating, expanding the settlement, and farming sufficient crops.
The arrival of the first Europeans in the Americas is dramatically captured through the many writers who attempted to communicate what they saw, experienced and felt. What is more, the very purposes of their treacherous travel and colonization are clearly seen in their writings; whether it is poetry, history or sermons. Of the many literary pieces available today, William Bradford and John Winthrop’s writings, even though vary because the first is a historical account and the second is a sermon, stand out as presenting a clear trust in God, the rules that would govern them and the reason they have arrived in the Americas.
The British colonies in the Chesapeake region and those of the New England region were both similar yet different in certain ways. One because both the colonist that settled there were looking for new opportunities. However, it was mostly second son aristocrats, which means the first born usually inherits the better half of the father’s riches. Their lives in England had either been mistreated or they were unable to flourish economically. Regardless of whether they were searching the land for expansive homesteads, religious freedom, or exchanging and merchant opportunities, the colonist in both regions were searching for another land in the New World. They were getting away from issues they had experienced in England, which took into consideration colonists to be similar.
Being the first two well-known places in which the English would set out to colonize in 1607 and 1620, Jamestown, Virginia and Plymouth, Massachusetts hold very separate set of beliefs, standards, and outlooks on life then and the future to come. While paving the way for things such as slavery, taxes, ownership of land, inclusion of women, tobacco and government assemblies, John Smith and the people of Jamestown became a classical foundation for new life and economic growth for the new world that is, the United States. On the other hand, William Bradford and his people began to realize the intentions of the Church of England were unholy and had strayed away from God’s teachings from the Bible. With this in mind, the Pilgrims set on a voyage to the new world to seek religious freedom. As we know it, the Pilgrims sought for peace and a new way of living that was fair, just and free from religious corruptions. While both settlers were met with Natives of the new land, each had two profound differences as to how they went about communicating and living with them.
Diversity is based on population, climate, economics, social structure, religion, government, and the composition of the residents. In the New World there were three regions, New England, the middle colonies, and the southern colonies. New England included the states of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. The middle colonies were made up of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. The southern colonies included Maryland, New Mexico, Florida, the Carolinas, and Georgia. Each region was different for numerous reasons. New England was different from the other colonies due to the economy, the production and distribution of goods and services in a country. In the middle colonies, compared to the other two regions, there was the largest variety of people living there. The southern colonies had the warmest climate out of all the regions, which was good for farming. Although the regions were part of the same country they each had things that made them unique.
Before the Spanish ship that changed it all, which arrived in the “New World” in 1492, thriving organized communities of native people had centuries of history on the land. That ship, skippered by Christopher Columbus, altered the course of both Native American and European history. 1492 sparked the fire of cultural diffusion in the New World which profoundly impacted the Native American peoples and the European settlers.
Looking back to the 1500s, the English had been situating settlements in Ireland and used a familiar model in the New World. The early years of Jamestown were difficult for the settlers. The land was hot, humid, and mosquito-infested, and the settlers were mostly aristocrats and artisans that spent much of their time searching for gold. Those who didn’t die on the trip, died once they arrived from diseases and starvation. In 1607, about 3 ships-each holding more than 100 English passengers, arrived on the Chesapeake Bay region of Virginia. Settlers were excited, given that they would be the first permanent colony in the New World. Most settlers were in search for riches and others in search of a new home. Settlers ranged from the ages of 17 to 35 years old. The first years for the English settlers were harsh and devastating. By 1611, two-thirds of the settlement had died and all hope was lost for the settlers. The 3 main circumstances that caused a majority of English colonists at Jamestown to lose their lives were the environment, the social and religious conflicts with the Natives, and the lack of survival skills.
European exploration of the West began in 1500 and continued to flourish for over three centuries. While colonizing this new land, Europeans first came into contact with the native peoples. European religious views, gender roles, and land ownership shaped their interactions with Native Americans. The English, for example, practiced Christianity, while the Native Americans possessed a more spiritual and animalistic religion. Native American societies were heavily reliant on women for not only household duties, but also agricultural responsibilities. English women, on the other hand, were seen as nothing more than caretakers. Concerning property, the English saw this new land as an unclaimed opportunity for economic gain and individual ownership.
Although all the colonists all came from England, the community development, purpose, and societal make-up caused a distinct difference between two distinct societies in New England and the Chesapeake region. The distinctions were obvious, whether it be the volume of religious drive, the need or lack of community, families versus single settlers, the decision on minimal wage, whether or not articles of agreements were drawn for and titles as well as other social matters were drawn, as well as where loyalties lay in leaders.
Pilgrims and puritans began a journey to a new land in search for religious freedom, and a fresh start to a brighter future. Both searched for a change to colonize their families, spread and develop their own beliefs of worship, and create a foundation to combine the wealth of opportunity and worship together without the strong influence of England. The geographical change would be the first challenge for the pilgrims and puritans. England held both parties until word of opportunity began to spread like wildfire.
In 1603, the English were still a small rising nation, poorer than most, and less powerful than Spain and France. Although the British colonies settled in the Americas late, they quickly became a dominant force in the new world. After they acquired their first permanent settlement in Jamestown, VA in 1607, the British became attracted to greater power and more land, which was the first building block of perhaps the most powerful European nation of the time period. Due to their growth in the Americas, the British were able to be compared to the Spanish colonies of the time period, which boosted the English’s confidence. Along with their growth in confidence, came a new way of thinking. Many British men thought that they
New England and the Chesapeake region were both settled largely of English origin, but by the 1700 the regions had evolved into two distinct societies. The difference in development occurred because of different religion beliefs, situations the colony was under, and different political views. Starting a colony wasn’t trouble-free. The settlers struggled with: starvation, lack of clean water, disease, and and indigenous people. Some settlers even disappeared almost completely, with the reasoning being unknown. The only thing left of the Roanoke village or “Lost Colony”, was a carving into a tree that read, “Croatoan.” Even today, this is still a mystery.