Knauer, Christine. “Equal Rights Amendment (ERA).” Encyclopedia of Women and American Politics. By Lynne E. Ford. 2015 ed. 2 vols. New York: Facts on File, 2014. N. pag. American History Online. Web. 8 Nov. 2015. Christine Knauer published the article from an encyclopedia titled Equal Rights Amendment. Knauer received her Ph.D. in History at the University of Tuebingen in 2009. Also, she attended the International Women’s University in Hannover, Germany. As of 2010, Knauer is a Research Assistant and Lecturer at the University of Tuebingen. This source provides an introduction to the topic of the Equal Rights Amendment or the ERA. The source gives examples on how the women attempted to extend equality. One example is women tried to receive
The case that sparked my interest on equal protection was Mississippi University for Women v. Hogan. This case allowed Joe Hogan, a registered nurse enrollment in two state supported coeducational nursing programs, but denied him enrollment in the Mississippi University for Women’s School of Nursing’s baccalaureate program, on the grounds that he was a male. The significance of the case is that parties seeking to uphold a statute that classifies individual’s gender must carry the burden of showing an "exceedingly persuasive justification" for the classification. Also, single-sex admissions policy of MUW 's School of Nursing cannot be justified on the ground that it compensates for discrimination against women.
It is for the Woman’s Party to decide whether there is any way in which it can serve in the struggle which lies ahead to remove the remaining forms of woman’s subordination” (Alice Paul, The Suffragist, 1921) Thereafter began a new battle, the Equal Rights
In 1923, the ERA written by Alice, was introduced into Congress. The Amendment declared “equal rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the US or by any State on account of sex” (“Woman Suffrage”, 2014, para 1). The Amendment was introduced into every Congress through 1972, where it finally passed but failed ratification in 1982. Only 35 states ratified the Amendment by the 1982 deadline. After the failure, the Amendment was again presented to Congress every year, but still fails to get passed.
Many lower class citizens such as women, African American, and immigrants demanded their god-given rights of suffrage and freedom, and being accepted in society as an equal citizen. The Women’s Rights Movement assembled due to the unfair distribution of rights in men and women. According to Document I, women demanded their right to “be free as man is free, to be represented in the gov’t… [and]…we now demand our right to vote according to the declaration of the gov’t under which we live.” Elizabeth Cady Stanton protests of being inferior to men, being governed without their consent, yet still being taxed by the “democratic” gov’t to which they mean nothing.
Finally, she had put all her thoughts on the paper: “in 1923 she drafted the text of the Equal Rights Amendment and worked for women’s equality in national and international forums for the rest of her career.” (womenshistory.org) The equal rights amendment was eventually passed. Unfortunately, by 1977, Alice Paul had died. She could not see the equal rights amendment pass, but even when she had passed away, her legacy had still lived on.
Primary Source Analysis This paper will contain an analysis on two documents that I have chosen on Women’s Rights. The two documents are: Abigail and John Adams Converse on Women’s Rights, 1776 and the National Organization for Women (N.O.W.) Statement of Purpose, 1966. Both were created hundreds of years apart, but they will give an understanding of how long of a fight it was for women to obtain a sense of equality.
Equal Rights “We have talked long enough in this country about equal rights it is time now to write the next chapter- and to write it in the books of laws.” Lyndon B. Johnson. An Equal Right amendment was first passed by women political party in 1923. It didn’t pass and it took four decades for a revival into congress. It seemed like it was going to be passed back in 1971 when it was approved by ⅔ vote from the House of Representatives in October of that year.
In 1866 Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton founded the American Equal Rights Association (AERA). “According to its Constitution, it 's purpose was to secure equal rights to all American citizens, especially the rights of suffrage, irrespective race, color, and sex.” (Wikipedia.org) The two women who
as they did not gain or keep the access to the professionals nor did they come close to earning equal pay for the same type of work if they continued to hold their jobs after the men returned. Because of the frustrations held by these women, it the led to the start of feminist movements. The late 1950s and 60s became years of change for women with people becoming more vocal about equal rights for women. This led to President Kennedy, in 1961, establishing the Commission on the Status of Women which examined issues relating to women because of the growing interest in women’s rights (Sink).
“Human rights are not worthy of the name if they do not protect the people we don’t like as well as those we do”(Trevor Phillips). Everyone whether they are black, white, rich or poor is entitled to their humans rights. Therefore, it is an inhumane and unjust atrocity when millions of people around the world are denied their basic human rights based on exactly these physical, shallow, insignificant differences that outline sharp social status ' in our society. On September 5, 1995, Hillary Clinton addressed the issue of women’s rights by delivering a forceful speech as the First Lady of United States. In Hillary Clinton’s “Women Rights Are Human Rights” she effectively expresses that gender equality is important by creating a credible account
In her speech, “For the Equal Rights Amendment” Shirley Chisholm addresses her views on securing women’s equality to ensure women have better opportunities. She is an American politician, educator and author that became the first black woman elected to the United States Congress. Chisholm supports her claims about equal rights for women by using examples of statistics to prove a point. Her purpose is to persuade her audience that women in America are neglected by equal rights and excluded from things that men are not. Throughout her deliverance she expressed an inspiring and informative tone to uplift her audience so that Congress can make a change for women.
The first African-American congresswoman, Shirley Chisholm, in her speech For The Equal Rights Amendment, emphasizes her point on why women should have equal rights in the workforce. Chisholm’s purpose is to convey the message that discrimination against women is unlawful and unjust. Chisholm adopts a passionate tone in her speech to the American Public. Shirley Chisholm starts her speech by calling out House Joint Resolution 264 which she says, “It provides legal basis for attack on the most subtle, most pervasive, and most institutionalized form of prejudice that exists”.
In the early 20th century, women fought for the right to vote. After more than half a century of continuous activism, the 19th amendment was passed, granting women voting rights. This triumph was merely the beginning of what the women’s rights movement would accomplish. Over the next several decades, women campaigned for policies which challenged societal norms and gave them equal footing with men. Pinpointing a sole cause of this movement has proved to be somewhat problematic, as there are several factors to its rise.
In the early 1920’s, women were denied rights against voting, work, and equal pay. In the 1800’s, slavery was very prevalent in America. After many years of protest and opposition, women and blacks alike were granted equal rights. Throughout history, humans have fought and won equal rights
We all know that women didn 't have as many rights as men, and they still don 't. Women can now do more than they used to, but they still aren 't equal with men. They have had to fight for so many things like the right to vote and to be equal to men. The 19th amendment, the one that gave women the right to vote, brought us a big step closer. The Equal Rights Movement also gave us the chance to have as many rights as men. Women have always stayed home, cleaned the house, and didn 't even get an education.