As such the theory that focuses on the macro-level of social construction, rather than the micro-level of everyday life. Marco mean large-scale and micro mean small and on interval level. On Marco leave is that there if not enough housing that people can afford and there is not enough support for people who are victims of violentce 's. The impact of homeless on the person is significant social & entomic cost not just individuals and family’s but also to the communities and nation as a hole . On a national level homeless are more likely to interact with government agencies like police, department of community
Gladwell explained that “Black Americans are much likely to stay in place and much less likely than whites to engage in contextual mobility” (Gladwell, 2015,p.3). Since South Bronx is mostly African Americans and Hispanics, not much contextual mobility occurs within this community and that results in not many changes in circumstances or opportunities for these people. The only move they do proceed in doing is referred to as “churning” as Gladwell puts it and only do so if the house is unlivable. These people don’t seek for a better lifestyle, but they are forced into this better lifestyle.The South Bronx proves churning because if change occurs within this city it is minor and replicates the same setting with no major change in opportunities to better or make a difference in their lives. Without contextual mobility, the community will always be known as poor and there won’t be a move that is big enough to change the circumstances that occur
It is also linked to the consequent changes in the neighbourhood’s character and culture which can result in the effects and benefits of gentrification not being evenly shared and distributed. Ms Shari Daya stated that poorer households are often forced out of their homes, away from their neighbourhoods and social lives in order to accommodate the influx of new economic activity and wealthier people and are therefore both socially and spatially excluded. The term, gentrification, was first created by urban geographer Ruth Glass in the 1960s (Kotze, N.J. & van der Merwe, I.J., 2000). It was used to describe the unexpected phenomenon of upper middle-class British families who were buying property in London 's “low class” East End. He devised it in order to give
For instance, African Americans are categorized by “black” in order to legitimize their exploitation as an apparently inferior race just because of skin color. This creates a system in which people are grouped based off race and ethnicity that subsequently leads to some groups having advantages, such as whites, over other minorities like Hispanics and African
Many studies have discussed ghettos as involuntary spatial forms of concentrated subordination,subordination; however, it also reveals a need for integrity in communities. Julienne Hanson (2000) mentioned about spatial structure of built environments and degree of socio-economic interactions
The urban environment is the locus of various forms of violence. The city is a meeting point for peoples from diverse cultural, racial and religious backgrounds, a place where they struggle for scarce economic resources as well as political power. The heterogeneity of the urban environment makes it an attractive place for thieves, rapists, assassins, murderers, etc., who can commit crimes with little fear of recognition. Public spaces are the physical embodiment of democracy, their very purpose being to foster debate- even conflict- among the various interests that are represented by the citizenry. As the shape of the city and the characteristics of urban life are influenced by the way public and private distinction is made, the role of urban
The labor system in the newly established European colonies of North America was initially very diverse but changed to more African slave oriented over time. From the north colonies to the middle and south, one can see a big variation in relationships, cultures, and lifestyles of slaves in each area. The labor requirements of each region shaped the relationships the slaves had with their masters and resulted in a big variation in slavery in each area of the colonies. The northern blacks were incorporated more into the new European American culture even though they were not fully accepted. Northern and middle colonies were comprised of blacks as a very small percentage of the population as opposed to the higher populations in the south.
This separation also applies to Black immigrants in the area. However in the Black residential areas, West Indians (Caribbeans excluding Hattians) live in the more wealthy areas while African Americans and Hattians live in the poorer areas. Because West Indians have greater emphasis and education, achievement and upward mobility, they are able to afford rent and buy home in nicer areas in the black residential area. West Indian’s perceived ‘blackness’ make it hard for them to exist in White communities, but in Black communities their ‘blackness’ does restrict mobility in the community. So more often than not, West Indian tend to live in Black communities because there is mobility, the can open up shops, and their merit is recognized.
So that they will have equal rights as the whites in front of the laws on court, and end the Jim Crow laws. Although this didn’t all happen at once, but it was starting to progress. The Great Migration happened through world war one, a lot of blacks moved to the northern part, since there are more jobs available. However they still worked with the same jobs they got in the south, since they are not well educated or skilled. More and more poor blacks gathered together in the north, and the communities they lived in has a high crime rate.
Tilley (2009) explained that crime is socially constructed and “patterns of criminality vary by the community and networks that offenders inhabit”. The social approach to crime prevention looks at the underlying social and economic causes of crime and aims to prevent crime by improving community cohesion. Hirschfield stated that areas of low social cohesion “do not have such well-defined social networks and is often the case that residents of these areas share very few common interests” (Hirschfield 1996, p1276) and these areas are likely to have a rise in burglaries as the level of deprivation increases. Neighbourhood Watch schemes were created as a method of reducing crime and increasing community cohesion through residents observing their