Dani Nelson 2/25/2017 Dr. Jones American Foreign Policy in Gilded Age and Progressive Era (1880-1920) HIST111: United States History After 1877 Over 100 years ago, the United States was looking to become the international power it is today. Establishing foreign policy through territorial expansionism in Hawaii, interventionism in Cuba, and imperialism in the Philippines was the major reason for the United States becoming a modern world power between 1880-1920. Before the 1880s, the United States had never really had foreign policy with any countries on the other side of the world. Policy had always been based upon the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that European nations were not allowed to interfere with nations in the Western Hemisphere, …show more content…
However, in 1891, King Kalakaua died and Queen Liliuokalani took over. She was insulted that the white Americans had control of her government and decided to make a new treaty to give power back to the natives. The American residents fought back and called on the United States to help them. The U.S. Boston was sent to help them and Queen Liliuokalani surrendered. The United States immediately tried to annex Hawaii, but the Senate wouldn’t sign the annexation treaty. A joint resolution was passed in 1898 by President McKinley for Hawaii to officially become …show more content…
The U.S. was given more land to control, including the Philippine islands, which McKinley found to be a problem because the islands were so far away and expanded over thousands of miles. Eventually, McKinley decided to annex the Philippines, and American support for the foreign policy soon followed. American imperialism was embraced by many because it allowed for the United States to get closer to becoming a major player on the world stage. Some believed it was their duty to “Christianize” the Filipinos; others believed it was a stepping stone for trade with China. Those in opposition of annexing the Philippines, especially the Anti-Imperialist League, believed that it didn’t align with American
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Pres. William J. Clinton signed a fiscal year 1993 appropriations act that conveyed title of the island back to the state and entered into a memorandum of understanding with the state about cleaning up and controlling the land. In 1993, Senator Daniel K. Inouye of Hawaii sponsored Title X of the Fiscal Year 1994 Department of Defense Appropriation Act (PL 103-139, 107 Stat. 1418.
The reasons did United States foreign policy change between 1920 and 1941 was mainly because of World War II. In the 1920’s, historians have considered the United States to be an isolationist country. Presidential candidate Warren G. Harding said that he opposed the League because it does not correspond with our constitution, even saying it would be a “deadly blow at our constitutional integrity”
Foreign Policy, 1890-1920s”, n.d.). These progressives, such as Roosevelt and Wilson, saw no conflicts in this approach to imperialism as it was a way to improve, uplift, and reform our government’s ways here at home and all around the world. Other Progressives opposed this foreign intervention and imperialism as they feared it would reduce domestic and social reform here at home and within the Republican Party. Democratic President Wilson followed the same path for the most part as Republican Roosevelt. He did have greater reservations in all foreign interventions; yet, he gladly intervened in the Mexican Revolution as well as used military intervention in Haiti and the Dominican Republic due to the possible German
The United States was not interested in having people with different cultures, languages, and religions where an older generation of moralists thought it violate a core principle of republicanism, while a younger generation believed that the United States had a role to uplift backward societies. When the foreign policy changed after 1890, the US became an imperialist nation. After the United States bought Alaska from Russia the US quickly decided to look into overseas. Their plan was to take over other foreign lands and slowly gain an empire, and soon become a world power. The two major causes for US expansion after 1890 were for economic benefits and military control overseas.
pro-imperialist conflict in the United States, the decision to annex the country was made without any of their input. Hawaiians became victims of American imperialism, which drastically changed their economic and cultural landscape. Acts of protest from Native Hawaiians went ignored by the United States government when they were considering annexation, and no attempts to compromise with them were made. According to petitions made by Native Hawaiians of the Hui Hawaii Aloha Aina (Hawaiian Patriotic League) and its female counterpart the Hui Hawaii Aloha Aina o Na Wahine in 1897, the overthrow of Queen Liliʻuokalani and the prospect of Hawaii’s annexation to the United States was strongly opposed by Native Hawaiians, as they contained signatures from more than half the Native population. In 1897, Queen Liliʻuokalani herself wrote a formal protest to the annexation of Hawaii to President McKinley, In which she stated, “I, Liliuokalani of Hawaii...do hereby protest against the ratification of a certain treaty, which, so I am informed, has been signed at Washington by Messrs, Hatch, Thurston, and Kinney, purporting to cede those Islands to the territory and dominion of the United States.
However, after the war, the United States chose to oppose empires in favor of an ever expanding network of trade deals (Oakes 619). With these facts in mind, it’s obvious why such dealings happened in Hawaii, and why the natives were stripped of their lands: money. The book The Queen and I by Sydney L. Iaukea is a very well written and thought out book.
Before the 20th century the United States was an isolationist nation but around the late 19th century America decided to convert into an imperialist power. They had numerous reasons to shift into being an imperialist nation. America didn’t want to begin imperializing to settle and live in the nations they were taking over, they already had America for that reason, they wanted to adopt these nations for what they had to offer, which was many things. America saw an opportunity to improving their nation and took it. Even if there were many causes for America to imperialize, three of them stood out the most.
It was their claim that the expansionists were destroying the “America institutions”, the constitution. On these grounds they tried to prevent the further war and bloodshed in the Philippines and other countries that might bear the same fate in the future if America continued to expand. (Docs A, D) The departure from expansionism was relatively small during this time period while its continuation and progression flourished.
William McKinley in his thoughts on American Expansionism has identified the reasons why America had no other choice but to incorporate Philippines as a part of it. This writing has been lifted from the excerpts of an interview with William McKinley soon after Spain had surrendered in the Spanish-American war. McKinley cleverly talks in this interview about how Philippines just came and fell into the laps of America thereby suggesting the helpless stance of America. He talks about how America’s sole intention and purpose had only been to safeguard its own interests as a country. He had to order that the Spanish fleets in Manila be destroyed because if left unattended, they would have crossed the Pacific and wreaked havoc in the American states
Today, Hawaii had one of the world's’ most multicultural populations. If we didn’t imperialize on Hawai who knows what history could be like today, but I know it has helped the U.S. in battles, economy, and dominance over communist countries today. Today, Hawaii is granted representation in the congress and senate, and the birthplace of our current president, Barack Obama. Hawaii, as a U.S. state, is guaranteed the freedom of all citizens and safe from foreign aggression. If we didn’t imperialize on Hawai who knows what history could be like today, but I know it has helped the U.S. in battles, economy, and dominance over communist countries
At the start of the 19th century, America was already expanding its territory. In 1803, the United States of America had bought the Louisiana Territory, it was bought from France which had made the country two times larger. In 1819 Spain had given up their territory of Florida to the United States. President Monroe issued the “Monroe Doctrine” in 1823, its main purpose was to warn the European countries to not enter the Western Hemisphere. In order for America to achieve its goal of becoming an imperialist nation they had conquered other countries economically, culturally, and with a strong military in the late 1800’s.
The overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom was in the year of 1893 and transpired during the reign of David Kalakaua and Queen Lili’uokalani. During this significant event, many monarchs, royalists, republicans, and revolutionaries were involved, with the exception of the many Hawaiians who had been against the annexation (Pitzer). While talking about annexation, the overthrow had been a key event that led to the annexation of Hawaii to the United States. When Hawaii was still under the reign of King David Kalakaua, he was forced to sign the Bayonet Constitution under duress. Queen Lili’uokalani had yielded her throne in order to avoid bloodshed and trusted that the United States government would right the wrong that had been done to her and the Hawaiian people (Pitzer).
The United State’s annexation of Hawaii in 1898 led to the gradual destruction of the Hawaiian culture and the almost-extinction of native-born Hawaiians. The majority of the Hawaiian natives opposed the annexation of Hawaii and wanted to maintain their sovereignty. Although the Japanese could have taken over the Hawaiian islands if the United States had not, the annexation of Hawaii by the U.S. was unjustified because of the treatment of the monarchy and natives, the infringement of the natives’ self-established culture and government, and the natives’ overwhelming opposition to the U.S’s involvement in Hawaii. From 1795 to 1874, the Kamehameha Dynasty ruled over the kingdom of the Hawaiian islands. Up until the death of Kamehameha III, the U.S. had stayed out of interfering with the islands.
Hawaii’s annexation led to a lot of different opinions, some opinions were with the annexation and some were against it. The annexation was led by a small group of white businessmen who were pursuing their own interests. The businessmen overthrew Liliuokalani who was monarchy of Hawaii at the time, when Liliuokalani was dethroned Hawaii had to elect a new monarchy. The new monarchy was Dole, he was the one that applied for the annexation of Hawaii. The American colonists controlled a majority of Hawaii’s economy.
Exploitation is wrong, but there have been multiple times in history where men have “justified” exploitation with progress and expansion. The real question is if their claims were entirely true. In the past, America used its power to exploit, conquer, and gain a foothold in foreign continents like Asia. Some may think that America’s exploitation was completely unjust, while others think that exploitation was needed for progress. America’s exploitation during imperialism was definitely unjust.