Between 200 and 1200 the Mauryan and Byzantine empires both had political leaders and noble classes that expanded empires and spread their religions. The Mauryans developed an elaborate bureaucracy that collected taxes from farming and had networks of people to spy on its own people and enforce obedience. Unlike the Mauryans, the Byzantines created a system of feudalism and used Eastern Orthodoxy to legitimize the rulership of an emperor. A large imperial army consisting of war elephants and cavalry secured power for the Mauryans, while military effectiveness led to the rise of the Carolingian empire and Vikings helped with spread of trade.
Ancient Greece and Rome were very successful in both of their empires and how they expanded. However, Ancient Greece and Rome are quite diverse whenever you see how they created their empires and how they overall lived their lives. In 753 BC, The Ancient Roman Empire strived and conquered with power. They had many civil wars which included bloody battles and aggressive politics.
The Abbasid Empire and The Carolingian Empire were similar and differed in many ways. The Carolingian Empire used conquest and military force to expand their borders and religious teachings. The Abbasid maintained their empire by relying on border defense, according to the lecture given by Dr. Furtado. The Carolingian Empire spread Christendom from modern day France in all directions on the European continent. How each religions were taught were different though.
The Eastern and Western civilizations varied on levels of advancement even within their own categories. The Eastern civilizations had a rather advanced civilization within it which was the Indus River Valley civilization, and the Western civilizations had an advanced civilization within it which was the Egyptians. It seems that the ancient eastern civilizations were the most advanced of the two. The Indus River Valley civilization seems to be the most advanced.
East and West Africa from 1000 to 1500 CE had profound differences in forms of government, with West Africa being kingdom based, and East Africa city-state based. The conversion of Eastern and Western African ruling elites compacted trading between themselves and Islamic traders from Mesopotamia, China, India, and as far away as Oceania. The relatively stable political environment from 1000-1500 CE in Sub-Saharan Africa attracted displaced peoples from the Abbasid empire in Northern Africa, with West Africa utilizing Trans-Saharan trade, and East Africa utilizing mariner trade routes. The East and West developed in clearly different ways, but paralleled each other in a way in which the political, social, and economic environments facilitated stable trade in the region, as well as a distinct blend between Islamic culture and African tradition.
In the Classical era, two very comparable empires carried out the cycle of rising and falling on the far western and eastern ends of Eurasia. While only Rome had to struggle to grow from a single city to an enormous empire, both Rome and Han China rose to power on the backs of their brutal armies. And, the fall of both empires negatively impacted the life of common people as well as the cultivation of culture across Eurasia. In the beginning of its reign, the Roman empire labored to grow from an impoverished city-state into a more expansive political force.
Many issues throughout history can be looked at differently because of perspective. When looking at both sides of a conflict a person can learn a lot about both sides. The Crusades were a progression of religious wars endorsed by the Latin church in the medieval period. Particularly the campaigns in the eastern Mediterranean with the point of recouping the Blessed land from Islamic power. Christians and Muslims came up with different strategies for fighting the war.
The Byzantines are very much against the Western Church. In fact, they do not even consider the Western Church to be truly Christian. In the Ottonian version of history, Pope John XII is regarded as being evil. This dislike for the Western Church is also exemplified by the instance in which envoys from Pope John XIII were thrown into jail for bearing a papal letter addressed to the "emperor of the Greeks. " The rift between the Western Church and that of Byzantine was caused by the development of Iconoclasm in the Byzantine Empire as well as the issue of the extent of control that religious leaders should have in
Medieval Europe was the time period after the fall of the Roman Empire. During this time period, Europe was divided into several kingdoms. Lords had manors and peasants that lived on their land, working in exchange for protection. They never left the land; there was no trade. Kings and Queens were in charge of kingdoms.
“Inequalities in the First Civilizations.” In the year 3,500 B.C.E. the first civilizations appeared. There were seven major civilizations that were scattered around the world. There were civilizations in Sumer (southern Mesopotamia), the Nile River Valley (northeast Africa), Norte Chico (Central coastal Peru), Indus and Saraswati River Valleys (Pakistan), China, central Asia, and in the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. The first civilizations tended to develop from earlier, competing chiefdoms that already had some social rankings and economic specializations.