This era includes only 300 years, but some profound and long-lasting changes occurred. The western hemisphere came into continued contact with the eastern hemisphere. Technological innovations, strengthened political organization, and economic prosperity all contributed to this change that completely altered world trade patterns. Technological advancements and willingness of political leaders to invest in it meant that sea-based trade became much more important. Relative power and prosperity of Europe increased dramatically during this time in comparison to empires in the longer-established civilization areas but, Europe did not entirely eclipse powerful empires in Southwest Asia, Africa, and East Asia.
The natives never having past exposure to such diseases, died in the masses due to their bodies not having any defense against them. Cows, pigs and other livestock were able to transfer diseases to the Europeans. Although since Europeans have been domesticating such animals for thousands of years, they simply grew immune to theses diseases and infectious epidemics on grand scales likelihood grew smaller and smaller from it. But for the Natives, they never had livestock nor large mammals like horses of pigs ever. Their bodies were taken by surprise by the highly advanced diseases that were trying to infect robust european bodies.
In the early 1600s, Europeans began their adventures by sailing miles across oceans to different continents. By the middle of the seventeenth century, the Europeans had come to North America, now known as United States of America (Norton et.al., 60). The arrival of the Europeans in North America had an impact both on their lives and the indigenous people 's lives. When they came, they also brought their cultures, diseases, and ideologies. More importantly, they had a "western foreign policy", which already existed in their own countries.
Diseases only found in the European world, such as smallpox, spread to the Americas due to people migrating with these diseases. Since natives did not have diseases like these, they were easily killed off by them. These diseases ended up killing 90 percent of the population native to America. The large number of deaths allowed the conquistadors to greatly outnumber indigenous people and easily capture the now weak tribes. Some may point out that the American diseases must have also affected the Europeans.
These people had lived in North America for millions of years, but when the Europeans began to explore this newfound land, the Native Americans were treated as inferior humans who had absolutely no value. They were ripped from their homes, killed, or forced to move elsewhere no matter how it would poorly affect their lives. Though this did not negatively impact Britain, it was a huge negative impact of their imperialism as a whole. Millions of Native Americans were killed in the process of establishing an imperial relationship between America and Europe. In one instance, the British settlers purposefully infected an entire large native tribe with small-pox so that they could conquer the land of the natives (Burch).
The native people of Australia suffered disruption to their rich culture as British invaders culled a large number of the 250 indigenous dialects forcing the children to learn English rather than their native languages. Only thirteen of these dialects can still be translated throughout Australia today. As well as harmful effects on the people of Australia at the time, the disrespect and mistreatment of the first Australians is sadly still evident today in Australian society. In fact, "just over half (52.2 per cent) of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged between 15 and 64 years were not employed in 2012-2013, compared with 24.4 per cent of non-Indigenous Australians." This is an undoubted representation of the negative effects of Imperialism on the indigenous people of Australia in modern society.
Diseases had a really big impact on the population of the New World but along with that it affected the lives of every individual since there wasn’t enough knowledge of medicine and disease many people died without even knowing that they would die. The natives had never really experienced such a tragedy so they had no natural immunity to any of the diseases. Diseases spread rapidly because of this. Since a huge amount of the population was wiped out, the Europeans had less natives to use for labor and as a result of that there was a big shortage of labor. The second biggest negative impact was that of the slave trade beginning.
The concept of the “Atlantic Paradox” involves viewing the Atlantic Ocean as both a moat and a bridge between the continents. While physically separating America from Europe and Africa, the Atlantic Ocean has also served as a means to get from one place to another, bringing fortunes for some and terror for others. The Atlantic Paradox affected the peoples of Europe, Africa, and America first through being a barrier of safety, yet also helping to ignite the slave trade, introduce different cultures, and make Europeans wealthy while decimating native populations. During the 15th century, Europeans were able to gain the knowledge enabling them to sail the Atlantic Ocean, first around Africa and eventually, all the way to America. The Atlantic
Diseases such as diphtheria, the bubonic plague, influenza, typhus, and scarlet fever were scattered throughout the New World as the Europeans settled inland. The Native Americans who had little to no resistance against these diseases succumbed. It is estimated around 90% of Native Americans population perished due to the diseases listed above. However the explorers weren’t the sole transmitters these diseases. Critters and livestock like mosquitoes, black rats and chickens that migrated along with the Europeans also carried the bacteria.
The Columbian Exchange had a great impact on the Americas and Europe. It would seem as Europe was a more established civilization compared to the Americas. The land in Europe was manmade. In which they had many sources for foods such as farming, hunting, and fishing. Europeans relied on grains, wheat, rye and farming, in which the Americas did not.
The worst infectious disease which annihilated almost all of the Native American people was Small Pox. Small Pox was an Old World disease which was very contagious, disfiguring, and often deadly. The people of the Americas had no exposure to this kind of disease so when it struck them, they didn’t understand what it was, or how to cure it. So, when the old world people entered Americas, they bought their plants, animals and diseases which they already had exposure to, leading to their population growth, in contrast to Americas where the population declined due to lack to exposure to Old World life. In conclusion, the Columbian exchange changed the way of life of people in both the Worlds.
The British men gathered full control of the trading center present in the Americas, and created the Navigation Acts to help aid them in their tactics to take control over all trade within the Americas. The Navigation Acts were passed under a mercantilist system, and was used to regulate trade in a way that only benefitted the British economy. These acts restricted trade between England and its colonies to English or colonial ships, required certain colonial goods to pass through England before export, provided subsidies for the production of certain raw goods in the colonies, and banned colonial competition in large-scale manufacturing. This lowered the competition in the trading world for the British and caused the British to have a major surge in power, that greatly attributed to the growth of their rising empire. The British’s ambitious motives in the trading world help portray a way that the British took control of an important piece in the economy of all of the other nations present in the colonies in the time period, and shows another leading factor in the growth of the British empire.
The Mongol conquest started in early thirteenth century and ended early 1400s, encompassing most of Asia during these period. Another significant invasion that involved the European and the Americas occurred starting in 1450. Both the nomadic and European expansion immensely impacted their subject population by bringing destruction through diseases. Although the Mongols did not attempt to spread a faith, the Europeans were in search of new Christian converts. While the Europeans’ purpose was to look for direct contact with Asian trade routes, their introduction of the Americas to Afro-Eurasia led to a greater phenomenon, globalization.
The Roman Empire and the empire of the Han Dynasty in China were two empires of the second wave of civilization that, at their peak held half of the world’s population. These empires were similar in size however, they did not interact. Politically, both empires had a centralized government. The strategies did differ somewhat.