The political conspiracy made it impossible to keep the operation strictly commercial. The Dutch Republic sanctioned the capture of enemy ships, which the start of an important strategy of Dutch-Asian trade. Capturing Portuguese ships proved to be a rich source of goods, which developed in to attacking Portuguese establishments. The first four fleets of the VOC between 1603-1607 sieged Mozambique, Goa and Mallaca, which followed in attacking Ambon and the the Mollucas. Whenever the VOC took possession of Portuguese establishments they had difficulties staying in power.
They began their operation by setting up factories and trading ports within the region to ease the circulation of goods. In 1602, the British set up a trading post in Banten which became the center of exchange for goods from the Spice Islands. Nevertheless, the British trade in Banten encountered various contestations starting from other European rivals who had previously established their control there to the limited English goods that could be received for barter with the local merchants in Banten. With these disadvantages, the presence of British in Banten was under increasing pressure and threats, especially when the rivalries between the British East India Company (EIC) and the Dutch East India Company (VOC) to gain trade monopoly in Banten culminated in wars. As involvement and sustenance of wars required a large amount of material and human resources, the benefits of trade in the Spice Islands were deemed to be undermined by all the expenditures and risks that had to be borne by the British.
The interactions of early Spanish explorers with the Indigenous people of the Americas contributed in a large way to later interactions between the two groups. Christopher Columbus and Hernan Cortès were two notable Spanish explorers who had early contact with the Mexica people as well as other native groups. Columbus initially set out to find an alternate sea route to India, and eventually arrived in the Caribbean and continued to explore over the years and came upon already established societies of Indigenous people. Columbus planned to bring them under Spanish rule after promising great wealth from this expedition to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain. Cortès, a member of low ranking Spanish nobility was originally focused on exploiting the labour of the people of the Americas, until he decided to pursue the goal of conquest in the Americas.
There, labour was needed and labour was available but in different places. The need for labour sprang from the inherent demographic difference between the Americas and South Asia, from the impact of European expansion and from the specific labor tasks that the colonists required. The Atlantic slave trade paid much attention to the role of the slave trade in British North America and West Indian colonies. According to Kenneth Morgan (2007: 18) “the transatlantic slave trade was an important business enterprise within the British Empire for nearly a century and a half, from the restoration of the Stuart monarchy in 1660 until the trade was abolished in 1807”. In this period the slave trade and its capital turnover made a substantial contribution to the economic development of the British Empire.
The charter was given to George, Earl of Cumberland, and 215 Knights, Aldermen, and Burgesses under the name, Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading with the East Indies. Their main competition was the Dutch East India Company. The company built its first factory in south India in the town of Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal. The company continued to take on its competition (Dutch and Portuguese) in the Indian Ocean, their first significant victory over the Portuguese was the Battle of Swally in 1612, after this they tried to gain territory in India by asking the queen to send a diplomatic mission to India. This was the beginning of the east India Company in India.
The British took the Cape government, administration and the judicial organisation and re-shaped it along English lines. English civil and criminal procedures were replacing outdated forms of procedure and the Cape Evidence Ordinance 72 of 1830 introduced the British law of evidence in 1830. Because the world of trade and commerce was dominated by the British and intensified by the British trade between Great Britain and the Cape, the consequent application of English Commercial customs, English documents and contracts led to the introduction of English mercantile law. The industrial revolution was well under way in England and the age of trade and technology was starting. English judges and advocates looked to English law for inspiration where
Conquistador, written by Buddy Levy about the famous ventures of Hernan Cortes, places the reader in the 16th century, or the era c.1450-c. 1750 ce. During this time, the idea of exploration was spreading quickly, as kingdoms and empires in Europe sought to expand their territory. Portugal, with Spain following after, led the way for exploration as they headed south. Spain, however, ventured west, driven by a patriotic attitude of expanding past their borders. Levy tells the story of Hernan Cortes, originally setting sail from Spain, as he sailed from Cuba to the shores of Mexico in 1519, eager about the discovery of new lands.
Lane is a professor of Colonial Latin American History at Tulane University. The purpose of Pillaging the Empire is to provide a chronological survey of piracy in the Americas and introduce maritime predation in Spain’s colonial holdings between 1500 and1750. Lane illustrates this purpose by surveying piracy in the Americas from 1500 to 1750 and through his placement of piracy in a world-historical perspective. Pillaging the Empire is paramount to the study of Atlantic world history as Lane provides an overview of maritime predation in the Americas in the early modern era, while placing piracy in the America’s in a world-historical perspective as well as proving that pirates were motivated by pecuniary motives which is an important lesson for the study of the history of piracy. Pillaging the Empire is a synthesis of secondary sources on piracy in the Americas in the early modern era.
Imperialism was a major cause of WW1 because Britain, Germany and France needed foreign markets after the increase in manufacturing caused by the industrial Revolution (BBC, 2008). The three countries competed for economic expansion over the whole of Africa. This caused plenty of conflicts between France & Great Britain and between Germany on one side and France and Great Britain on the other side, almost precipitated a European war between the three nations. Sometimes colonies are acquired after a fully-fledged invasion or a fight against the local population. British control of South Africa was established after a series of campaigns and native tribes like the Zulus, followed by two magnificent wars with the Boers (farmers of Dutch extraction) (Quizlet, 2013).
Strategic motivation also played an essential role in the scramble. Britain, France and Germany rivaled one another for their political and economic interests in Africa. For example, the colonization of sub-Saharan Africa remained part of British colonial endeavor in Egypt. With the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, Britain started dominating the vital trade route in the region by risking a military confrontation with France in 1882 and eventually signed a treaty with France,