Comparison Of George Washington And Indian Policy

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George Washington and Indian Policy

George Washington was elected the President of the United States in 1789, and as everybody knows, was the first President in American history. For people who do not know who the first president is, he can be found on the dollar bill. After Washington was selected as the president, he chose various people to run each department in the government. He selected General Henry Knox for the Department of War, Alexander Hamilton for the Treasury, and Thomas Jefferson for the State (218). Alongside those people, Washington was President for a number of years (winning reelection in 1792) until John Adams became president in 1796. During Washington’s presidency, America was in a number of conflicts with …show more content…

Georgians who were seeking land that was occupied by the Creek Indians were pushed away. Therefore, the American government had to intervene. Washington and Henry Knox tried to negotiate a treaty with the Creek chief Alexander McGillivray, but refused any kind of negotiation. They tried again a year later, and this time McGillivray accepted. Washington and Knox were able to convince McGillivray in accepting trade negotiations by inviting him to meet the president and having him arrive “in a triumphal procession of various lesser Creek Chiefs and was accorded the honors of a head of state” (226). After McGillivray was open to trade negotiations, the Treaty of New York was created. The treaty promised the protection of Creek Indian land boundaries against land seeking settlers and also assured them annual payments in money and trade goods (226). Although a treaty was created, neither side could keep their promise. McGillivray had also signed an agreement with the Spanish before he died because “the Creeks’ interests were best served by maintaining creative tension between the American and Spanish authorities” (226). The agreement that the United States had made in the Treaty of New York could not be kept as well as it had proved to be unrealistic. It was not actually possible for the U.S to protect Creek boundaries. However, agreements with a different group of Indians ended very …show more content…

The Ohio Indians did not open up to negotiations willingly unlike the Creek Indians. With the Northwest Ordinance in effect, “the federal government started to survey and map eastern Ohio, and settlers were eager to buy” (227). Because of this, U.S Army units were sent into the Western half of Ohio to suppress and bring the Ohio Indian tribes under control. Fort Washington, which was built on the Ohio River, was the command post for invasions against the Indians. There were three major invasions. General Josiah Harmar led the first invasion in which he and his 1,400 men were ambushed by Miami and Shawnee Indians led by their chiefs, Little Turtle and Blue Jacket (227). General Arthur St. Clair led the second invasion with 2,000 men, and along his travel route, built Fort Jefferson and Fort Hamilton. At the headwaters of the Wabash River, the General and his men fell under a surprise attack that “left 55 percent of the Americans dead or wounded” (227). In retaliation to that crushing defeat, Washington increased the military presence in Ohio. General Anthony Wayne of Pennsylvania led the third major invasion against the Ohio Indians. Wayne’s army overpowered the Ohio Indians in the battle of Fallen Timbers, which was a major defeat for the Indians. The confederated Indians ambushed the Americans again as they have done so in the previous two major invasions, except this time they were underpowered. The defeated

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