Cultural Dimensions Of Universalism

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that organizational behavior models are adapted properly to the principle of Universalism, in other words, it assumes that models developed in one country are, in the same way, valid in other countries.
Study by other scholars’ shows that cultural dimensions models provided by Hofstede, Hall, Trompeanears and Globe, etc., may have some shortcomings as their cultural dimensions approach is differ. There are, however, significant conceptual and practical drawbacks to an approach that sees national culture as a distinct, overarching system for guiding behaviors. It tends to classify individuals and groups in terms of a single culture (Victor et al., 2005).
It is not possible that people can have an impact of only one culture. A number of cultures
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It includes people who have many different beliefs and customs. It could be something designed for cultures of different races. Multiculturalism is a philosophy that appreciates ethnic diversity within a society and that encourages people to learn about the contributions of those of diverse ethnic backgrounds. At Microsoft, we believe in diversity “Diversity of nationality, gender, sexual orientation, and most importantly diversity of thought”. (Mark, 2010)
Multiculturalism is closely associated with “identity politics,” “the politics of difference,” and “the politics of recognition,” all of which share a commitment to revaluing disrespected identities and changing dominant patterns of representation and communication that marginalize certain groups (Gutmann, 2003). Multiculturalism is a body of thought in political philosophy about the proper way to respond to cultural and religious diversity. Mere toleration of group differences is said to fall short of treating members of minority groups as equal citizens; recognition and positive accommodation of group differences are required through “group-differentiated rights,” a term coined by Kymlicka (1995). Antiracism and multiculturalism are distinct but related ideas: the former highlights “victimization and resistance” whereas the latter highlights “cultural life, cultural expression, achievements
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Multiculturalism has been official policy in several Western nations since the 1970s, for reasons that varied from country to country, including the fact that many of the great cities of the Western world are increasingly made of a mosaic of cultures (Claval, 2001).
The Canadian government has often been described as the instigator of multicultural ideology because of its public emphasis on the social importance of immigration (Wayland 1997). The Canadian Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism is often referred as the origins of modern political awareness of multiculturalism (Jackson, 2010).
In the Western English-speaking countries, multiculturalism as an official national policy started in Canada in 1971 (Canadian Multiculturalism: An Inclusive Citizenship, 2012), followed by Australia in 1973 (Fact Sheet - Australia's Multicultural Policy, 2007) where it is maintained today. It was quickly adopted as official policy by most member-states of the European Union. (Neil, 2002). Many nation-states in Africa, Asia and the Americas are culturally diverse, and are 'multicultural' in a descriptive sense.
2.6 DEFINITIONS OF LITERATURE

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