What stimulates the production of this hormone? What effect does it have on the kidneys? (3 marks) The atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) hormone is produced in specialized myocardial cells primarily n the atria of the heart (Silverthorn et al., 2013). Natriuretic peptides are released by the heart when increased blood volume causes increased atrial stretch (Silverthorn et al., 2013). At the systemic level, ANP enhances sodium and water excretion to decrease blood volume.
The ventricles then contract, the valves between the atria and ventricles close and the blood is pumped into the aorta and pulmonary artery. Explain the term blood pressure and describe the role it plays in the circulatory system. Describe the conditions high and low blood pressure. According to Blood Pressure UK, when your heart beats it pumps blood around your body to give it the energy and oxygen it needs. As the blood moves, it pushes against the sides of the blood vessels.
High blood pressure (hypertension) is defined as having a systolic reading equal to, or more than 140mmHg and a diastolic reading equal to, or more 90mmHg. Hypertension can be caused by stress, medication (steroids), obesity, diet, alcohol, smoking and hereditary factors. The renal system works with the circulation system to remove waste products and fluid from the body. Blood pressure rises if the volume of blood increases, due to fluid retention in the body or from disease of the kidneys. The effects of hypertension include angina, heart attack, heart failure, stroke, kidney failure and peripheral arterial disease (poor circulation in the
There for my enzyme activity would be at its greatest in room temperature. My Null Hypothesis would be that the liver enzyme would work at 60 degrees Celsius and that the enzyme wouldn’t well at 35-40degrees Celsius. The Rational for this experiment is, ‘Thousand cellular respiration’. The Aim of this Practical investigation is to “see what factors affect the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by the enzyme catalase which is found in the
The patient’s respiratory pattern is that of Kussmaul breathing. This is the body’s attempt to blow off as much carbon dioxide to compensate for the metabolic acidosis from DKA, seen when the pH is less then 7.20 (McCance & Huether, 2014). The patient will have a fruity odor on his breath due to the keto acid.
1. Introduction: a. Hemoglobin structure: Hemoglobin is metalloprotein found in red blood cells having four polypeptide chains. Adult hemoglobin contains 2 alpha (141amino acid) and 2 beta chains (146 amino acid) which forms a tetramer called as globin and each chain is attached to iron containing prosthetic group heme (protoporphyrine IX). Ferrous ion of this heme is linked to globular protein by binding ‘N’ in the center of the protoporphyrin ring. There is a non-covalent interaction between four chains.
These receptor elements then respond to the changes in H+ concentration in the interstitial fluid in the brain, causing ventilatory and circulatory adjustments during hypercapnia and chronic disturbances of acid-base balance (O'Regan & Majcherczyk, 1982). Similarly, the peripheral chemoreceptors also sense the increase in pH and would signal to the respiratory centers via the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves. The peripheral chemoreceptor drive can modulate central chemosensitivity during hypercapnia (O'Regan & Majcherczyk, 1982). Both central and peripheral chemoreceptors would send fewer impulses to the respiratory centers (central: the medulla oblongata, peripheral: the aortic and carotid bodies). This would result in a decrease in muscle contraction, which would subsequently lower ventilation.
They also shown increased of carbon dioxide in the alveolar with the increasing interval between breath and improve the oxygen exchange. The breathing pattern that is controlled induce the hypercapnia which result in hypoventilation that contributes to the lower risk of