This difference appears due to the contrast approach of each of the systems. As neorealists try to structurise the world and seek to find any interdependence at the international system they tend to see the state slightly in a different way. That is why, as Waltz and neorealists in general have more systematic and structured approach. It is also asserted by them that the policy of any state will be constructed more or less automatically as they would be influenced by external factors. While Morgenthau argued that states are bound to conduct their foreign policy in terms of national interest (Jackson, Sørensen, 2013: 81).
4.0 An Explanation of Realism, Liberalism, Constructivism and Post-Structuralism. 4.1 Realism Realism or political realism prioritizes national interests and security concerns in addition to moral ideology and social reconstruction. The term is often associated with political power. The term is often associated with political power. Realism believes that the state is the main actor of the most important in determining the direction of a country.
Countries act in ways that will best promote their power . In our current world, the best way to promote one’s own power is by aligning themselves with the hegemon, which is usually seen as the United States. One example of this would be the way the western world attempts to limit the rising power of Russia through economic sanctions. Ultimately, the Democratic Peace Theory does not explain why democracies go to war since it ignores that the potential for power and differing ideologies determine every regime type, including democracies, thus war is a possibility whenever ideologies are radically different and power can be gained through
We have to consider that both represent the Enlightenment’s conceptualization of sovereignty. According to Arendt, the paradox of sovereignty was that on the one hand, it was giving the right of a rational people to control its own destiny. At the same time, however, this right to control destiny entailed nations pursuing their ends whatever means necessary. Thus, the question arises, if the deprivation of stateless peoples and refugees from rights are simple errors/exceptions or inherent problems of nation-states. According to Arendt, ethnic cleansing and genocide are actually part and/or result of this understanding of sovereignty, for nation-states possess “the sovereign right of
He also believed that the creation of political parties was an inherent evil, and that rather than unifying America, these parties divided the country, corrupting American government and politics in the process. The incipience of America as an independent state brought to fruition the variety of opposing viewpoints as to how the nation should be managed. The two primary schools of thought at the time were those of federalists who believed in a strong central government, and thus more restrictive rights on the
Many realists saw World War II as the vindication of their theory. Realists argue that the need for survival requires state leaders to distance themselves from traditional morality. Realism taught American leaders to focus on interests rather than on ideology, to seek peace through strength, and to recognise that great powers can coexist even if they have antithetical values and beliefs.  Thucydides, the author of the Peloponnesian War is considered to be the founding father of the realist school of political philosophy.  Amongst others, philosophers like Machiavelli.
Human beings always want power and have the will to dominate (Dunne and Schmidt, 2008: 95). Classical realism argues that the state is a reflection of how people behave as it is as self-seeking as people. Morgenthou notes that human nature shapes the essential features of how states govern internationally (Dunne and Schmidt, 2008: 95), making power-seeking a vital feature in classical realism. Classical realists make the assumption that “international politics is a struggle for power” (Dunne and Schmidt, 2008: 98). They argue that security competition and inter-state conflict also occurs because of the anarchic system and the distribution of power in the international system.
Robert B. McCalla has remarked that a distinction should be made "between a psychological environment – the decision maker 's image of the setting in which decisions are carried out – and an operational environment – the actual setting in which they are carried out". While the first part of McCalla 's statement constitutes 'perception ', 'misperception ' is a situation where there is a mismatch between perception and reality. Yet, perception and misperception play a major role in the outcome of states ' foreign policy making. Their influential role in international politics has been debated by Robert Jervis in his ground-breaking book Perception and Misperception in International Politics whose ideas have been utilised in this book. The way Iranians, particularly their leaders, perceived the British has had a great impact on the formulation of the Iranian attitude towards Britain.
Rights also limit the permissible actions the government may take to interfere with the actions of individuals. A Classical Liberal and an Existentialist both speak of individual responsibility and its meaning; however, they are referring to very different concepts. A classical liberal refers to individual responsibility as self-interest whereas an existentialist refers to individual responsibility as the individual in
National interests of a superior state may prevent the attainment of peace in a developing state. The realist theory stresses the constraints on politics imposed by human selfishness and the absence of international government. The theory further emphasizes that states are sovereign and are motivated by national interests. The United States of America has acted as the world’s police interfering in other states’ matters especially if the state can benefit them. A specific example of this such