Realism is the dominant theory of international relations because it provides the most powerful explanation for the state of war that is the regular condition of life in the international system. One of the major view of Realism is that the international system is anarchic. Akoko (2013) argues that relations between states in the international system are characterized by competition for power rather than cooperation. States continually seek to further
Within the study of international relations, neoliberalism is a theory about achieving international cooperation between states in the international system. Neoliberalism can be seen as a response to structural realism. These two theories have in common that their main focus of analysis is the state and its interests. They also have the same interest in studying rationality and utility maximizing. Another assessment that these two theories share is that cooperation is very difficult to accomplish in an anarchic system.
Liberalism, along with realism, is one of the main schools of thought in international relations.According to liberals, international relations is not only controlled by the relationship between states but also includes and emphasises the role of other actors. During WWI and WWII the main academic competitor to the Realist paradigm was idealism., They looked into numerous beliefs of realism and recommended possible ideologies to alter the world pursuing supremacy and conflict into a unique one in which peace and cooperation amongst states might conquer. The faith that liberals have is that substantial universal cooperation is possible and power politics can be moved at the core of the realist paradigm. (Lawrence 1913, 3-5)
In Stephen D. Krasner’s, “Structural Causes and Regime Consequences: Regimes as Intervening Variables,” he defines what regimes are in relation to international politics as well as ascertaining their significance. Krasner compares and contrasts multiple scholarly viewpoints to determine if regimes have a noteworthy impact on international relations. Furthermore, he discusses the different building blocks for which regime development is built on. Krasner defines regimes as “sets of implicit or explicit principles, norms, rules and decision-making procedures around which actors’ expectations converge in a given area of international relations.” Principles are the foundation of a regime and are statements about how the world should work. The second, norms, are standards or guidelines of behavior.
Postmodernism is a late 20th century movement in the arts, architecture, and criticism that was a departure from modernism. It is often associated with deconstruction and post-structuralism because its usage as a term gained significant popularity at the same time as 20th century post-structural thought. It remains among the most controversial of theories in the humanities and social sciences. It has regularly been accused of moral and political delinquency. This chapter is divided into four main sections, which are the relationship between power and knowledge in the study of international relations, the textual strategies employed by postmodern approaches, how postmodernism deals with the state, and postmodernism’s attempt to rethink
2.2.1 Constructivism Social Constructivism is one of international relations approach. This approach challenged the rationalism and positivism of neorealism and neoliberalism. One of constructivism character is its emphasis on the importance of normative as well as material structures, the role of identity in shaping political action and on the mutually constitutive relationship between agents and structures (Burchill et al. 2005: 188). The term “constructivism” was first introduced by Nicholas Onuf in his book World in Our Making.
As suggested by Donnelly, (2000) there are; structural realists, who give predominant emphasis to international anarchy; biological realists, who emphasize a fixed human nature; radical realists, ones that adopt extreme versions of the three realist premises of anarchy, egoism, and power politics; strong realists, adopt realist premises in a way that allows only modest space for politically salient non-realist concerns; and finally hedged realists, who accept the realism definition of the problem of international politics – anarchy and egoism – but show varying degrees of discomfort with the solution of power politics. However, it is stated through Donnelly’s writing that “Hedged realism gradually merges into views that are fundamentally something else. At some point, (non-realist) ‘hedges’ become as important as the (realist) ‘core’, making it misleading to label the resulting position or argument ‘realist’ ” (2000,
Since International law has been the foothold of the International Arena, many problems apropos of its essentiality have risen. The applicability of it regarding the different issues on the relationship between states is now being challenged. Consequently, the nature of a state assesses the cooperation on international relations because each of them has something that they want and it is what we call self-interest. This essay aims to discuss how international law faces the current problems and how it affects the relations between the states by scrutinizing the context and issues behind it. It will also fare about the aforementioned argument as something we should know and recognize.
Constructivist ment that ideas are those of targets, threats, fears, identities and other elements of perceived reality that affect the state and non-state objects of international relations. Constructivists believe ideological factors often have long-term goals and outcomes, and this is an advantage over the materialist theory (realism, liberalism). Therefore, the perception of the same phenomenon in international relations may vary depending on the conditions in which states are. Moreover, constructivists do not consider anarchy constant consistency in the international system, arguing extreme
THEORIES AS TO THE BASIS OF INTERNATIONAL LAW Much theoretical controversy has been waged over the nature and basis of international law. In the coming sections the various aspects of the theories trying to give satisfactory structure of the concerned law. Does International posses law quality ? One theory which has enjoyed wide acceptance is that international law is not true law, but a code of rules of conduct of moral force only. The English writer on jurisprudence, John Austin (1790-1859), must be regarded as foremost among the protagonists of this theory.