Drought is a climatic phenomenon which varies with locality and time at any location. As mention by Wilhite (2000) and Wilhite et al. (2007), drought is a very complex phenomenon and it remains a poorly understood climatic hazard. The drought can be classified into five forms, namely meteorological, hydrological, agricultural, ecological, and socioeconomic drought. The major focus is on those droughts that occur across seasons and are called ‘supra-seasonal droughts’.
These countries with lots of drought often have deadly dry seasons and short rainy seasons. Most of the countries affected by drought are African countries or places near the equator that receive a lot of direct sunlight. Droughts being hard to define, often vary in many factors. A drought could last a few days, or even a few centuries. An example of this could be a drought in Europe lasting just a few weeks and not being very severe, but a drought
Drought frequently results in crop failure, while high rainfall intensities result in low infiltration and high runoff causing enhanced soil erosion and land degradation. Land degradation in the form of soil erosion and declining land fertility is a serious challenge to agricultural productivity and economic growth (Lemenih,
Periods of drought are characterized by a shortage or abnormally low amount of water in the environment. There are numerous causes of droughts. The most common cause is a scarcity in rainfall. An extended duration without rain will lead to a region to drying out. With human beings continually procreating, the world’s population is rapidly increasing.
Over the next century, a decrease in water resources will likely be experienced by these areas, particularly in areas that are already water-stressed due to droughts, population pressures, and water resource abstraction. The availability of water resources is strongly related to the amount and timing of runoff and precipitation. By 2050, a projected increase in the annual average river runoff by 10-40% at high latitudes and in some wet tropical areas, on the other hand a decrease by 10-30% in some dry regions at mid-latitudes and in the subtropics. A rise in temperatures globally is leading to a decline in snowpack’s in many regions and glaciers are melting at extraordinary rates, increasing flood risks. Droughts are expected to become more widespread, whereas increases in heavy precipitation events will lead to more flooding.
Badiani and Jessoe empirically analyze how the electricity subsidies will affect on groundwater extraction and agricultural production in India (Badiani et al,2013). Some researches use interviews and survey data trying to figure out the relationship between energy and groundwater extraction (Birner et al. 2007; Scott & Shah 2004). There is also theoretical model analyzing the effects of rising energy prices on the economics of water in agriculture, and the
However, this is only one data set and it is not reliable as it does not contain data from different areas and precipitation is not the only factor in the formation of sinkholes. Other factors include the type of land (strong or thin) and temperature that is sometimes warm temperature causes drought along with other temperatures affecting differently. Also, population plays a huge factor, because if more people use the water then it runs out faster and the water level falls, triggering karst regions to turn into sinkholes due to unstable ground. so, the data provided is not reliable, then we cannot assume precipitation has no effect on sinkholes even though it does along with many
In developing countries, areas which have large scale agricultural activities especially in water intensive agricultural activities such as horticulture usually experience water shortages due to the amount of water used in agriculture. It is important that alternative water sources are used for agriculture is there is to be clean drinking water for people across the
The problem is that with the lack of rain, dirty water, loss of agriculture land, degradation use to fertilize, chemical fertilizer, soil exhaustion where it’s getting drier from over use of production, are making it difficult to harvest grains and process rice. In addition, leading to more poverty, starvation, diseases and viruses. Not to mention, we will need more production for natural vitamin supplements for medicine to produce tablets for patients. Another example, lack of farmers to produce more crops as the younger generations are moving out to urbanized cities for careers and a better life. Making it difficult to continue on constant food production for the future.