Environmental Pollution In The Environment

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Environment is where we live, breath, eat, drink and survive. The pollution in the environment is the most serious problem in the modern society. The pollution occurs due to various activities of biological species. Industrial effluents and domestic sewage which contain toxic substances beyond permissible limits are directly discharged into water bodies cause water pollution. Further, emission from industrial plants, fuel combustion in motor vehicles, homes and buildings and thermal plants contains numerous chemicals that drift in the atmosphere causing air pollution. Once in the living food chain, the objectionable substances are accumulated beyond the permissible limits adversely affects the living beings. Some of the known effects on…show more content…
However, Freedman and Shukla [11] have studied the role of a toxicant on a single species and predator - prey system by considering its effect on both the growth rate of the population as well as on the carrying capacity of the environment. Further, Shukla and Dubey [31] have proposed a model to study the simultaneous effects of two toxicants, one being more toxic than the other, on a biological population. Shukla and Agrawal [30] have studied mathematical models to study the effects of toxicant on biological species by considering different situations such as allelopathy. Agrawal et al [2] have proposed and analyzed a non linear mathematical model to study the simultaneous effects of n toxicants on a biological population. But in all of these studies, it has been postulated that the toxicant affects each and every individual of the biological population uniformly. However, this may not be a valid assumption in all the cases: it may happen that the effect of a toxicant on some members of the population is more severe than the others and hence a subclass of such members may exhibit abnormal symptoms such as changes in shape, size or even deformity, etc. This is possible even if all the individuals of the population are exposed to the toxicant for the same duration as in the case of…show more content…
in plants (Kozlowski [20], [21]) and in animals([25], [28], [29], [33]). For example, Hartwell et al [17] have studied the growth of Eurytemora affinis (Copepoda) in flow through chambers at different locations of polluted sites in Chesapeake Bay tributaries and found that growth rate and fecundity may be chosen as indicators of water quality at appropriate locations and in between the locations. Sun et al [32] have shown that morphological deformities can be considered as biomarkers in fish from contaminated rivers in Taiwan. Patil and David [26] have found that fish in toxic media exhibit irregular, random, circular swimming movements, hyperexcitability, loss of equilibrium, and sink to the bottom. Caudal bending was the prime morphological malformation. The behavioral and morphological deformities are due to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Woin and Bronmark [38] have studied the effect of DDT and MCPA on reproduction of snail collected from eutrophic pond in southern Sweden and showed that these pollutants may have no effect on mortality but have profound effect on the

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