Surveillance systems include routine reporting, sentinel surveillance surveillance that considered community-based reporting. Data from ongoing surveillance should be linked with official or responsibility of health facility assessments, population surveys, and outbreak investigations to provide information for building planning, implementation, evaluation, and follow-up for determine the health events. Evaluation of surveillance systems should assess the extent to which data are used for policy-making and improvement, and the simplicity, accuracy, completeness, timeliness and cost of the data. The surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases to monitor progress towards disease control targets and monitor health status. The establishment of goals to reduce measles cases by 90%, eliminate neonatal tetanus, hepatitis B, diphtheria,TB, and eradicate poliomyelitis has put increased emphasis on the need for effective disease surveillance.
The households involved added up to an estimate of 22.9 million households (Hughes, 2008). Additionally, the healthcare delivery model highlights that it is important for the nurses or doctors involved to address what should be done by both the patient and the caregiver for the improvement of skills and knowledge in regard to providing healthcare (Hughes, 2008). Details of the instructions provided by the nurse or the doctor should be taken into account to avoid activities contributing to low qualities of health care. In conclusion, care giving is a universal obligation associated with the acts of love and third party responsibility. One of the basic provisions of the healthcare delivery model is to address the quality of health and care services provided and the affected parties are the caregiver and the patient which makes the model a patient and caregiver centered.
Bowling (2009) defines RCT as an experimental method for the evaluation of the effectiveness of health services and interventions in relation to specific conditions. RCT involves the random allocation of participants between experimental groups, whose members receive the treatment or other intervention, and control group whose members receive a standard or placebo treatment. Also, it is a gold standard in testing the efficacy of an intervention (UCL, 2011). To commence the article assessment is the view of the abstract. The heading and abstract of the study was well outlined, concise and focused on the sample population, methodology, data analysis as well as the result of the study.
Discuss the pros and cons of the WHO infectious disease surveillance efforts currently in effect. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the main purpose of public health surveillance, is composed of three components: 1) Serve as an early warning system for impending public health emergencies; 2) Document the impact of an intervention, or track progress towards specified goals; and 3) Monitor and clarify the epidemiology of health problems, to allow priorities to be set and to inform public health policy and strategies (http://www.who.int/). Based on the above information, the outlined pros would be 1) It provides a structured way of ensuring that health issues are taken care of; 2) Keep a good record of previous history regarding
In Community Health there are three levels of prevention. Primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary prevention is prevention of problems before they occur. Here health promotion and health protection is focused. Immunizations and health promotion are examples of primary prevention.
The importance of Epidemiology and how it relates to Nursing Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health related states or events including disease and the application of the study to the control of disease and other health problem. Various methods can be used to carry out epidemiological investigation; surveillance determinants. The important of epidemiology on the whole is to improve the health of population. This essay will focus on the importance of epidemiology and how it relates to nursing .There will be definition of health, disease and nursing. According the WHO health amendment 1948 health is defined as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not
5. Community Health Needs Assessment: This is taken from module 5.2 of public health nursing in block 2. Community health needs assessment is a systematic process of knowing and exploring a defined community for assessing its health status and determining possible factors affecting the health of people. Book Author: Gulani (2005) The process involve the following - describing the state of health of local people, the identification of the major risk factors and causes of ill health; and the identification of the actions needed to address the risk factors. This is achieved through clinical experience and professional training and to be carried out before an effective treatment is given.
Multiethnic health in Australian health care systems manifest the fundamental values of multiculturalism work inside the framework of health care, with certifying that the training of health professional has a strong and specific emphasis on building cultural competence and effectiveness, that is, the ability to work competently and effectively in a culturally diverse workplace and in encounters with people from different cultural backgrounds to ensure the delivery of best level of healthcare. ( Australian Government. The people of Australia. Australia’s Multicultural Policy; 2011.) Cultural competence, (National Health and Medical Research Council.
says that there can be certain processor to implement that can be precautionary actions to spread of the health diseases. The implementation of these actions is recommended at start level as health camps in primary and secondary schools. The distribution of vaccination or health camps can help children fight the diseases and spread awareness about health and wellbeing. The regular visits by doctors are suggested to keep the check of the health status of people. One of the most important activities in today’s age of globalization is to stop the disease coming with the migrants from the other countries.