Therefore it helps us to always reconsider and reevaluate any action. The major weaknesses of correspondence include; the objection recognizes moral truth, but rejects the idea that reality contains moral fact for moral truths to corresponds to. Furthermore, the logical positivists recognized logical truth, but reject logical facts. What I found appealing about coherence theory is the fact that it explains how scientists can make claims about the very large and small objects using a system of claims already accepted to be true. With this, scientists could save a lot and even move to perfection with necessary going through much protocol.
With each new discovery, our prior knowledge is either being further proved or disputed. Robust knowledge refers to knowledge claims that have withstood these constant challenges and have not been disproven, despite any attempts to disprove it. However, the claim that “robust knowledge requires both consensus and disagreement” is justifiably false to me, in certain areas of knowledge. I believe that this claim is entirely false in the mathematics area of knowledge but can be true in the natural sciences area of knowledge. The reason for my belief is that the claim explicitly states that “Robust knowledge requires both consensus and disagreement”.
b) What are the differences between an experimental, quasi-experimental, non-experimental and descriptive design? Experimental research design: In the experimental designs participants are randomly allocated to independent variable, which means researchers can manipulate the independent variable and assess the outcome. The experimental design which evaluates the cause and effect relationship and it can perform in lab and real life conditions with one group treated as a experiment and other group is placebo. The experimental designs are highly reliable and controlled, but it needs ethical approval from government. A Quasi-Experimental Design: In the Quasi experimental design, researcher doesn’t manipulate independent variable and also not assign the groups.
However, his emphasis on rigorous experimental techniques and scientific methods did have an important influence in the field of psychology. One of the biggest problems with Hull 's drive reduction theory is that it does not account for how secondary reinforcements reduce drives. Unlike primary drives such as hunger and thirst, secondary reinforcements do nothing to directly reduce physiological and biological needs. While Hull 's theory has largely fallen out of favor in psychology, it is still worthwhile to understand the effect it had on other psychologists of the time and how it helped contribute to later research in psychology. Lewin’s Field Theory Kurt Lewin’s field theory flourished between 1935 and 1960.
From my perspective, it is hard to construct something from nothing, of course I only know this from making science projects, but in the end, the context can be perceived as the same thing. If I ever have to describe this country, I would say, it is indescribable, but I can say how it affects me and everyone around. The United States of America affect people through freedom, hope, and sacrifice. . I presume that America affects people through freedom, because it is known for being a free country.
Many Humanists acknowledge that science can help people to deal with some of the great questions of life and overcome problems.  However, Humanists acknowledge that science can get it wrong and be harmful to society. When considering whether cloning and genetic engineering are good for humanity, many Humanists therefore believe that the pros and cons of each should be thoroughly and openly debated first. Humanists argue that the more informed we are about the issues of cloning and genetic engineering, the more able we will be to make decisions regarding them that are good for society as a whole.
All these criticisms are supported by the criteria on Popper’s (1971) demarcation, as it concerns the logical structure of theories (Hansson, 2008). He claims that a theory may only be deemed to be scientific if it can be falsified (Popper, 1971; Hansson, 2008). The philosopher, Karl Popper (1971), is famously known for his theory of falsification theory and according to him, many applied sciences, especially social science, are not scientific due to their lack of potential for falsification. In other words, a theory must consist of an inherent testability so as to be proven false and thus conceivably refuted. Not only that, it must be able to make predictions that can be accessed through numerous testings (Popper, 2002; Hansson, 2008).
In a more simple way of putting it, they are both based off different aspects of human experience. Science explanations need to be based on evidence from examining the natural world. It is based on observations and experiments that are exinmed into further development or are abandoned completely for better experiments. Religion doesn't need to depend on the basis of evidence. Instead, it is involved on supernatural entities which cannot be explained by science.
Rationalism is beliefs in the external world that give somethings like a power or transcendent being. Empiricism is belief in sensation experience that looks like a science. I think both concepts are conflict in some situation and compatible in some situation. For example, you can’t test or examination about the God’s existence but you can’t say it is true or false or meaningless because may be verified in the future. The paradigm of Positivism seems to be combined of Rationalism and Empiricism.
Mathematics can be seen as more trustworthy because it uses reasoning. Natural science on the other hand can be seen as less trustworthy than mathematics because it relies on observation. The information we obtain will be affected by different peoples bias for instance in natural science there is a well known bias called observer bias which is a common tendency for a researcher to draw a conclusion from the results based on their own preconceptions of the problem. In mathematics there is a less chance of bias when obtaining the information because the subject relies