Human monkeypox is a viral zoonotic disease caused by the monkeypox virus (MPXV), a member of the genus Orthopoxvirus (family Poxviridae, subfamily Chordopoxvirinae), that occurs mostly in the rain forests of central and western Africa. People living in or near the forested areas may have indirect or low-level exposure, possibly leading to subclinical infection. However, the disease recently emerged in the United States in imported wild rodents from Africa. Monkeypox has a clinical presentation very similar to that of ordinary forms of smallpox, including flulike symptoms, fever, malaise, back pain, headache, and characteristic rash. Given this clinical spectrum, differential diagnosis to rule out smallpox is very important. Primary transmission believed to occur through direct contact with …show more content…
Smallpox outbreaks have occurred from time to time for thousands of years, but the disease is now eradicated after a successful worldwide vaccination program. The last naturally occurring case in the world was in Somalia in 1977. After the disease was eliminated from the world, routine vaccination against smallpox among the general public was stopped because it was no longer necessary for prevention. In 1970, when smallpox was nearly eradicated, a previously unrecognized orthopoxvirus named monkey pox was identified in humans. The first known human case occurred in the Equateur province of Zaire (now known as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) when a 9-year-old boy developed smallpox like illness, which was eventually confirmed as human monkey pox by the World Health Organization (Ladnyj et al., 1972). Retrospectively, similar cases occurring in 1970-1971 from the Ivory Coast, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone were attributed to monkeypox
The Columbian Exchange was the movement of people, animals, goods, plants, diseases, and microorganism that occurred in the sixteenth century. The effects of The Columbian Exchange on early American society were extensive. One of the most devastating effects was the spreading of disease that killed around ninety percent of the Native American population. When Europeans came to the New World they brought with them diseases such as, “smallpox, measles, typhus, and cholera”(document one). The native’s immune systems were not prepared to fight theses diseases and this lead to a catastrophic amount of fatalities.
*How did technological advancements in the antebellum period influence development of agriculture? How and why did these developments increase the differences between the North and South? There were many technological advancements during the antebellum period. Some of them would greatly influence agriculture. They would change agriculture forever.
In the Hot Zone, Richard Preston demonstrates how devastating Ebola and other filoviruses can be to large populations. In the book, Preston describes true events during an outbreak of Ebola virus at a Monkey facility in Reston, Virginia in 1980. He also gives background from other viral outbreaks in Africa in the 1970’s and 1980’s.
Boston Smallpox Epidemic of 1721: When smallpox broke out in Boston, Cotton Mather introduced an untested medical procedure called “inoculation”, which would introduce a small amount of the virus to a patient, in hoping they would become immune to it. Many were opposed to it, even though it worked. Many people died due to the epidemic. 31. Common Sense: Thomas Paine wrote a book called "Common Sense", it sold more than 150,000 copies when the population was only 3 million.
Polio: An American Story written by David Oshinsky highlights the journey to the discovery of a vaccine which would finally put an end to the once mysterious disease, Poliomyelitis. The journey begins in Otter Valley, Vermont, as it was the first Polio epidemic to be documented in the United States. Unknowingly, it would take years after the first epidemic in 1894 to find a solution for this frightening illness. The disease dates back to ancient time, with cases describing the victims to be left with disfigured limbs and some eventually to be paralyzed. Oshinsky identifies that the disease appeared in three phases: endemic, which occurs in a sporadically within a group of people, epidemic, in which it affected many people and spread rapidly,
Antisepsis wasn’t the only way to prevent illness. By the end of the 18th century people had found a way to try to prevent smallpox, a disease that had caused around 60 million deaths in Europe in that century alone. They had noticed that the survivors of smallpox never developed the disease again, so they began to scratch small pieces of smallpox sores into their skin, which would give them a mild case of smallpox, so they wouldn’t develop full-blown smallpox later. This was called variolation. They only problem was that sometimes it would cause a full-blown case instead of a mild one.
Over time, the disease slowly had no effect on the Indians when they finally developed an antibiotics the counter the disease. By the 16th century, the Europeans were able to counter the disease unlike how the Indians can do it quickly. Some had genes to for combating smallpox and much other disease in their way. For example, from the 1450s to the 1600s, over 27 million Native Americans died from the lack of counter genes. For foods, the Native Americans produced food that were done poorly and were poor nutrition.
Also, in the year 1966, it was estimated that 10-15 million citizens had died altogether. Smallpox was finally proclaimed eradicated in 1980. Nowadays, only government laboratories in the United States and Russia contains fragments of the virus for research purposes. However, if used as a biological warfare agent, it is a immense threat to humanity and civilization because of its case-fatality of more than 30%. No cure or treatment for smallpox exists.
In the book, Pox Americana: The Great Smallpox Epidemic of 1775-82 by Elizabeth Fenn (2001), depicts the casualty of one of the deadliest virus in mankind -- the smallpox during the American War of Independence and how it shaped the course of the war and the lives of everyone in the North America. Smallpox is a highly contagious disease caused by an Orthopoxvirus known as variola major virus. Spread by direct transmission, the disease produces high fever, headache, excruciating back pain, anxiety, general malaise, blindness at times, and the most distinctive of all, blistering rashes that can leave deep-pitted scars. Its spread could be attributed through human civilizations, voyaging, expansion of trade routes. The European colonizers brought
Thesis: In The Monkey's Paw by W.W Jacobs, the realistic essence of the monkey's paw made it fundamentally creepy. Point 1: The monkey's paw is a symbol for inclination for greed, exposing our superior wants as people, even the most humble. Point 2: Consequences for the actions of those using the paw develops the image of regret and fear. Point 3:
In the story “The Monkey’s Paw” the theme is don’t mess with fate and this story elements like character, setting, and plot all help contribute to the theme. The character’s emotions, reaction, and actions are a significant role in revealing the theme. The setting, though not realized as much actually shapes the story too. As normal, plot most definitely contributes to the theme. The character’s reaction contributes to the theme.