Discuss the ethical implications of “medical necessity” in patient care. Ethical Implications of Medical Necessity When it comes to medical necessity can often refers to the determination that is made for the insurance purposes. For example, If the patient has a condition that is chronic or terminal, the treatment could be considered medically necessary whether then the patient can afford the treatment or not. Networked doctors may face ethical dilemmas when recommending treatment or specialist referrals. When it comes to medical necessities it can be controversial, it can be the use of marijuana when there can be others that are more a moral ethical in which it can be in manage care and network providers.
Informed consent is the process by which the treating health care provider discloses appropriate information to a competent patient so that the patient may make a voluntary choice to accept or refuse treatment. (Appelbaum, 2007)1 It originates from the legal and ethical right the patient has to direct what happens to her body and from the ethical duty of the physician to involve the patient in her health care. In order for the consent to be valid, the patient must be competent to take the particular decision; have received sufficient information to make a decision; and not be acting under stress.2,3
Consent is patients’ rights because they have right to know what is happening to their life which is fundamental value in professional practice (Department of Health (DH), 2001). Dougherty and Lister (2015) state that consent is a patient’s rights to refuse or to accept a treatment. However, Dimond (2010) said that consent is a voluntarily decision which can be given orally, verbally, written or implied for example if you ask a patient to take their blood pressure and they offer their arm. Eyal (2012) also states that consent promote trust in medical procedures that people may seek and comply with medical advice and participate in medical research. Bok (2013) argues that there are problems with the trust-promoting as many patients give consent despite being to some extent distrustful.
Ethics of healthcare depends on 4 moral standards and how they are utilised; autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice. Autonomy, which means self-governance, is the rule for regarding the privileges of a person to settle on a choice for them self, and respecting that decision. In healthcare this implies regarding a patient's choice on treatments, regardless of the possibility that it could bring about damage or demise to themselves. Autonomy is about self-rule, control free, without impact or influence from any other person, and is tied in with making an educated and un-forced choice about their care and medicines, based from their qualities and inclinations. Alongside autonomy is the principle of justice, which incorporates reasonableness
Ethics can be explained as principles a society develops to guide decisions about what is right and wrong. Ethical principles that society has are influenced by religion, history, and experience of the people in the group. Meaning that ethics is based on guidelines we have learned while growing up, that helps us differentiates what is right and what is wrong. For example, some people think health care should be a human right as others think it should only be available to those who can pay for it. Each group of people is guided by the principles they believe in. Ethics in health care play a vital role every day. The practice of health care includes many scenarios that have to do with making adequate decisions when it comes to patient’s life. For the purpose of this paper, I want to explain the occurrence and some of the ethical concerns found in a case of an elderly patient, who believed in Curanderos and didn’t realize the harm she was doing in regards to her health by not taking her medications.
We need to be able to understand what the nature of the procedure is and what it details. It’s also good to discuss other types of alternatives. Informed consents can also bring up certain topics about the risk that can be involved with the procedure. As healthcare professionals it is part of our job to help look after the patient and make sure that all legal documents are in order.
Ethical Complexity of Distribute Justice and Rationing Medicine is a practice based on moral standards applied to clinical values and judgments, also known as medical ethics. Ethical values consists of beneficence, nonmaleficence, autonomy and justice. However, these ethical principles are affected when distributive justice and rationing of health care resources are implemented “…in a world in which need is boundless but resources are not…” (Scheunemann & White, 2011, p. 1630). The historic Hippocratic Oath described the four main principles of medical practice and established a moral conduct for clinicians. Beneficence demands that health care providers develop and maintain skills and knowledge, consider individual circumstances of all patients, and strive for the patient’s benefit.
This is continued to be developed; established 'dignity champions ' to make a difference locally. Human Right in Healthcare -A Framework for Local Action 2007/08 Is a framework that assist local NHS Trust so they can develop and apply human right approaches in the design and delivery of their services The service focus on FREDA values which are Fairness, Respect, Equality ,Dignity and Autonomy Organisational policies: There are guidelines that provide the basis on which an organisation can develop their own policies. Regardless the size of the organisation all must have polices and guidelines on expected for staff, good practice in the delivery of care and the support of individuals.
Patient Rights. Enactment of HIPAA enables patients in many ways by providing them a set of rights which include a right to be notified about the privacy practices of the covered entity they are dealing with, a right over control and access of their Personal Health Information(PHI), and to take legal action against an entity on encountering any HIPAA violation without facing threats of retaliation.
Informed consent must never be assumed. On the other side of the spectrum, informed refusal is the patient's right to deny any of the services recommended. From a legal standpoint, it is important to always document informed consent and refusal to avoid any legal
The committees involve individuals from diverse backgrounds who support health care institutions with three major functions: providing clinical ethics consultation, developing and/or revising policies pertaining to clinical ethics and hospital policy and facilitating education about topical issues in clinical ethics. The goals of ethics committees are to promote the rights of patients; to promote shared decision making between patients and their clinicians; to promote fair policies and procedures that maximize the likelihood of achieving good, patient-centered outcomes; and to enhance the ethical environment for health care professionals in health care
Ethical Issues in Healthcare There are many ethical issues facing health care at any time and it is impossible to say definitively which is the most pressing or the most important. Health care professionals are expected to base their practice on a set of ethical principles, including truthfulness, beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice, and confidentiality. Ethical issues can arise, however, when a l professional is called upon to act in opposition to personal values or in cases where the values of patient, health care worker, and sponsoring institution conflict. The following issues are presented in no order. Neonatal Ethics Neonates are babies within their first twenty-eight days of life.
There have been many instances of unauthorized viewing of medical records. Unauthorized viewing of patient records is a violation HIPAA. The HIPAA Privacy Rule requires that “protected health information should not be used or disclosed when it is not necessary to satisfy a particular purpose or carry out a function” (Health and Human Services.gov). The case study in which Joe, a staff member accessed medical information after he was allowed access to the hospital to change lightbulbs and the case study in which the daughter of a nurse accessed medical information as a result of the mother leaving the computer unlocked and unattended, are HIPAA violations (i.e both people accessed the medical information illegally). Joe was tasked with changing a lightbulb, but was curious about a patient he knew on a personal level, his neighbor. Joe intentionally accessed his neighbor’s patient file at an empty workstation after the nurse manager neglected to log out or lock the computer before walking away.