For example, a surgeon will cause a certain amount pain and suffering on a patient in order to save their life. The surgeon has inflicted one form harm in order to avoid a potentially worse fate. However, in all cases, we are prohibited from acting in ways that are likely to cause undue risk or needless harm. The following secondary principles fall under the principle of non-maleficence; Do not kill, do not cause needless pain and do not incapacitate others(2). A question that frequently arises in the argument of beneficence vs non-maleficence is “whats the difference between the 2 principles?”.
Failing to act is a form of abandonment according to Carr (2001). The World Health Organisation defines health as ‘a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity’. Ineffective pain management would contradict this definition of health; hence the provision of adequate pain management is imperative to high quality patient care. Pain which is untreated can delay healing and lead to cardiac, respiratory and endocrine complications (Brennan, Carr, & Cousins, 2007). Conversely, it could be argued that the principle of non-maleficence is upheld when morphine is not prescribed.
A doctor may have to operate even in the absence of consent, to save the life of the patient. It is possible that even with such an intervention, the patient may not survive. Assuming that the doctor is competent and has exercised due care and diligence, the doctor cannot be held responsible for a patient's death, as the doctor has acted in good faith and in the best interest of the patient. Maintaining a good Doctor patient relationship often works better than the best informed consent! The informed consent issue as discussed is very much driven not by the medical procedure or research being done or what could arise from it.
Therapeutic privilege is the idea that if the health care provider discloses information to a patient it may harm them more than help them. The concept of therapeutic privilege is tricky because it must be well documented that omitting the information is in the patient’s best interest. Also, in most cases, therapeutic privilege does not completely overrule informed consent. The health care provider must provide any information to the patient that they judge not to cause harm to the patient. For example, they may not disclose the diagnosis immediately but may explain and gain consent for the preferred treatment option.
There is a professional standards of practice to guide them in preventing harm. Hospital staff should sensibly ensure that no harm comes to a patient under their care. To withhold necessary treatments from violent patients simply imply that there is an intention to cause harm, perhaps, indirectly (Staunton & Chiarella, 2017). In law, there are three elements that constitute a negligent action - the duty of care is owed to the patient, the duty of care has been breached through inaction, and through this inaction, physical or financial harm has been caused. The negligence demonstrated in withholding treatment shows that the hospital staff’s inaction is below the expected standard.
The four core ethical principles that are called into question in the movie “Miss Evers’ Boys” are autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Autonomy refers to the right of the patient to function independently and the ability to self-direct. This means that patients are entitled to decide what will happen to them, and if deemed competent, they have the right to either consent to or refuse treatment. All nurses and healthcare personal would be required to respect the patient’s wishes, even if they do not agree with them. Beneficence is the core principle that refers to the act of ‘doing good’ and advocating for the patient.
When providing information to the patient a phlebotomist should be mindful of the particular patients needs and what they would like to know ensuring that they have understood the information given to them. In the past, education of healthcare professionals did not focus on ensuring that the professionals achieve a certain amount of skills needed for effective communication with their patients. This leads to a system in which the healthcare professional deals only with the necessary medical information rather than utilising a more clien-centred approach. It has been suggested that they are reluctant to inquire about the patients concerns in fear of encountering personal issues surrounding the situation which they are not equiped to deal with. Their concern may be that this will result in increased patient stress, a less time
The argument of ending life being a slippery slope can be dispelled to a certain degree when it comes to ethical reasoning. Proponents see assisted suicide as a risk to the elderly and uninsured who may feel compelled to request assistance to end life to avoid being a burden to family and or society (Ersek,2004, table 2). Protocol can and would be in place that would assure measures are taken to those seeking to die on their own terms can do so. This choice is done freely without consequence to themselves or by the doctors assisting by determining factors that would safeguard against abuse of the choice to end
If this is the case, they must be told of the reason for the refusal. Patients have a right to complain about the doctor's refusal to the Management. Provision of Treatment requires patient’s choice and informed consent. Even if a patient has signed a general consent clause, the patient can still refuse medical treatment or procedures. However, in exceptional or emergency situations a doctor may be legally justified in performing surgery or providing treatment without the patient's consent.
Confidentiality In a healthcare setting it is important to withhold personal information securely and safely. (Data protection act 1987 protect personal information). This can tell practitioners that information should be withheld.an example of maintaining confidentiality can be in a day Centre for elderly people this is shown when a service user discloses personal information the worker should not spread the information to other people. However it is appropriate if the only time this can be broken is when the person is a danger to others or themselves. Confidentiality is important because if it is kept it builds trust and this results in service users feeling safe and content with disclosing information.
Safeguarding patients by building a strong patient physician relationship must be established so that there is no foul play in the outcome. The issue is that it is very difficult to assess the overall competence and voluntariness of a patient. CMA mandates that the protection of physicians is a must; and any change in law must legally protect those physicians who choose to participate from criminal, civil, and disciplinary proceedings. No physician should feel compelled to participate, and patients are free to transfer to another hospital if a physician denies a patients
The principle of autonomy allows the patient to make decisions about their own health care options. This includes selecting no treatment even if the consequences can be fatal. This dilemma can be difficult for some medical professionals, but as long as the patient is competent they have the freedom to choose. (Cordasco, 2015) Mrs. S appears to be denying the problem based on the physicians opinion and is competent to make the decision. Informed consent is required for any medical treatment barring any
This is important to remember down the road because instead of waiting uncomfortably, you or your patient could remember the symptoms and suggest to your doctor that you think it might be inflammatory bowel disease. This would save time and discomfort. I was also informed during the discussion how hygiene can have an impact on Crohn’s disease because it will affect the immune system. A fact that I found interesting is that inflammatory bowel disease can be caused by hereditary through your genes, but also because of your smoking status. This is just another reason why people should not smoke.
Ciscos medical still has to be checked as well as his doctors training. From doing this, the medical research of Cisco must lead to the fact that he may be allowed to take dosages of Methadone. This because Cisco could have had easily gotten the prescribed drug from a doctors help by nexus, if this is true then severe arrangements need to be considered in order to permanently suspend these culprit doctors license. If Ciscos prescription was found legal, then he is however still broken the law because according to the Tafe Education any drug prescribed or not is not allowed on Tafe premises. It could have easily been dealt with better if he had revealed this to his higher consultants to obtain permission before using the prescribed drug.
Gill argues that keeping a person healthy cannot be a physician’s only moral duty because in cases of terminal ill patients, they can no longer be treated or healed (372). If a physician’s only duty were to heal patients then they would not tend to the terminally ill because there would be nothing else that they could do, which is something that most people would find to be morally wrong (Gill, 373). No one would be okay with a doctor not helping a person at all who has received a terminal sentence. So instead of promoting health in this case, the physicians must find a way to reduce the suffering of the patient. This means that the physician should be able to reduce the suffering in the way that the patient asks for.