Ethics of healthcare depends on 4 moral standards and how they are utilised; autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice. Autonomy, which means self-governance, is the rule for regarding the privileges of a person to settle on a choice for them self, and respecting that decision. In healthcare this implies regarding a patient's choice on treatments, regardless of the possibility that it could bring about damage or demise to themselves. Autonomy is about self-rule, control free, without impact or influence from any other person, and is tied in with making an educated and un-forced choice about their care and medicines, based from their qualities and inclinations. Alongside autonomy is the principle of justice, which incorporates reasonableness
Ethics can be explained as principles a society develops to guide decisions about what is right and wrong. Ethical principles that society has are influenced by religion, history, and experience of the people in the group. Meaning that ethics is based on guidelines we have learned while growing up, that helps us differentiates what is right and what is wrong. For example, some people think health care should be a human right as others think it should only be available to those who can pay for it. Each group of people is guided by the principles they believe in. Ethics in health care play a vital role every day. The practice of health care includes many scenarios that have to do with making adequate decisions when it comes to patient’s life. For the purpose of this paper, I want to explain the occurrence and some of the ethical concerns found in a case of an elderly patient, who believed in Curanderos and didn’t realize the harm she was doing in regards to her health by not taking her medications.
The four core ethical principles that are called into question in the movie “Miss Evers’ Boys” are autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Autonomy refers to the right of the patient to function independently and the ability to self-direct. This means that patients are entitled to decide what will happen to them, and if deemed competent, they have the right to either consent to or refuse treatment. All nurses and healthcare personal would be required to respect the patient’s wishes, even if they do not agree with them. Beneficence is the core principle that refers to the act of ‘doing good’ and advocating for the patient.
Moral decisions are not always easy decisions to make. However, necessary means are often provided to fulfill these difficult decisions. In health care, there are certain ethical principles or guidelines that help us make the appropriate choice when it comes to giving the best care to a patient, and they help justify the purpose for providing the best care to a patient. These principles are relevant in our health care system today in order for patient care to be as appropriate and as effective as possible.
In most, if not all, countries, all adult and mentally-competent patients have the right to make autonomous decisions concerning their medical and health conditions. This right is reserved so long as the patient has the ability or capacity to voluntarily make and comprehend the decision in the presence of full disclosure with regards to the therapy in question. Failure of a healthcare
Autonomy, is the patients right to make decisions about matters that impact the patient. For instance, guided by the data collected after a health assessment autonomy would allow a patient to create a meal plan and exercise activities that would assist them in achieving their set goal. For example, if the client’s goal is to eat three small meals each day that result in a 400-calorie reduction in intake, it is the nurse’s role to support the patient, and help them achieve
Ethical theories are ways of telling right from wrong and include guidelines of how to live and act in an ethical way. For example when faced with a difficult situation in your life, you can use ethical theories to assist you in making the right decision. One key theory is consequentialism, which says that an individual’s correct moral response is related to the outcome/ consequence of the act and not its intentions/ motives. Early writers on this theory were Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, a modern writer is Peter Singer. For example Brenda Grey has asked for the asthma specialist to visit her weekly, and to decide if this is necessary the professionals involved have to look at how it would affect her wellbeing. This is done by questioning
Autonomy is when patients have the right to make decisions about their medical care without a health and social care professional trying to influence the decision. (Medicine net) For example, gaining consent or informal agreement of the patient before any treatment takes place. The principle may at times cause problems when patients exercise their autonomy by refusing life-saving treatments. Another barrier to patient autonomy is if one is being forced into a decision.
9. PROFESSIONAL AUTONOMY IN NURSING Nursing has come a long way from being the hand maidens of the physician to having control over nursing knowledge and practice. It now has two essential ingredients of accountability and autonomy. There is more demand from the nurses now than in the past when all they were expected to do was just to provide comfort and care.
Consent is patients’ rights because they have right to know what is happening to their life which is fundamental value in professional practice (Department of Health (DH), 2001). Dougherty and Lister (2015) state that consent is a patient’s rights to refuse or to accept a treatment. However, Dimond (2010) said that consent is a voluntarily decision which can be given orally, verbally, written or implied for example if you ask a patient to take their blood pressure and they offer their arm. Eyal (2012) also states that consent promote trust in medical procedures that people may seek and comply with medical advice and participate in medical research. Bok (2013) argues that there are problems with the trust-promoting as many patients give consent despite being to some extent distrustful.
Patient autonomy argues that a person’s life is their own, allowing a patient to make decisions on whether to live or die. This is seen most strongly in cases where people are suffering severe pain or disability. However, to what extend is individual autonomy to be undermined? In our current model, the guidelines for determining the competency of a patient present too many holes. Therefore, allowing life and death decisions to rest on individual autonomy rejects our society’s basic attitude or respect for
Being formed in 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights helps recognize “the inherent dignity” and the “equal and unalienable rights of all members of the human family”. Based on this very concept of the person, and the fundamental dignity and equality of all human beings, that the notion of patient rights was developed.
-Autonomy: the ability to make decisions unaided by others. Or patient over a certain age has the right to refuse treatment. -Veracity: legal principle that states that a health professional should be honest and give full disclosure to the patient. Which basically means, “informed consent”.
These principles also help the nurse decide the best treatment for the patient. The first principle autonomy according to Finkelman and Kenner (2016) is the right a patient has to make informed decision about his/her care and treatment. This means that only the patient has the right to make decisions about their healthcare having received information on the benefits and risks from the Physician. In order words, pain treatment is part of the informed decisions the patient has a right to make. For a nurse to diligently perform his/her duty, pain relief should be provided to the patient how and when prescribed by the Physician irrespective of the nurse’s bias or prejudice (Finkelman and Kenner, 2016).