Harman et al., (2004a) reported that the induction of localized or systemic resistance is a critical issue for plant disease control by Trichoderma spp. As a consequence disease control through root-colonizing Trichoderma spp. entails a complex interaction among the host plant, the pathogen, the biocontrol agent and numerous environmental factors(Harman, 2004a; Hoitink, et al., 2006; Alfano et al.,
Accurate identification of pathogens is essential to allow the correct decision to be made regarding disease management (Anon.2016g). 7.1. Phytophthora spp. : Phytophthora spp. generally attacks roots, often entering at injury points (Gray and Hine 1976).
To date, much effort has been made to understand key factors controlling salinity stress. The genetic determinants and hormonal signalling pathways that underlie salinity survival strategies still need to be identified. A genomics approach can greatly help with the identification of genes, and therefore potential gene products, that are involved in the plant salinity response. Functional genomics also provide a new opportunity by which to gain molecular and physiological knowledge that could be used to improve the salinity tolerance of plants relevant to crop production and environmental sustainability (Munns and Tester 2008 ). In fact, the most widely used plant model plant, Arabidopsis, has been used to characterise the important
Alternatively, known genes from metabolic pathways can be isolated, and either suppressed or over expressed, and the effect on plant function analyzed. Years of field-testing must be carried out as for any commercial cultivar, but must be done in compliance with governmental regulations so as to prevent movement of trans-genes into weedy relatives. Complicating commercialization of a genetically engineered crop are the intellectual property rights associated with the many of the tools of genetic engineering, such as plant pro-moters and selectable markers. The cost of licensing these tools can be prohibitive, making ge-netic engineering currently feasible only for very high value traits. There is currently some lack of public acceptance of genetically engineered crops for human
Mitophagy introduces to the autophagy of mitochondria. It is an important cellular process that is responsible for breaking down cellular contents. It is saving energy and safeguarding against accumulation of damaged and aggregated molecules. Mitophagy trusts on the existence of main controllers of autophagy. Some of the proteins are established to be included in mitophagy but not in common autophagy.
Historically, terrestrial habitats used to be in rigid environments, lacking in organic matter and nutrients and were not favourable to plants with primitive root system. AM fungi were important for the successful invasion of plants onto land. Fungi, with their nutrient scavenging hyphae, were able to obtain nutrient better. Today’s terrestrial ecosystem are more favourable to plant invasion, but AM fungi remain to be involved in the ecosystem processes which are the the Carbon and Phosphorus cycles. The part of AM fungi in ecosystem is obvious, but the implication of AM fungi biodiversity on ecosystem-level measures is less arguable (Heijden & Sanders, 2002).
In addition, fungi are primarily responsible for keeping ecosystems piled up with the inorganic nutrients necessary for the growth of plants. without these decomposers, carbon, nitrogen, and other elements would remain tied up in organic matter. Plants and the animals that feed on them could not exist because elements taken from the soil would not be returned. Fungi as Mutualists Fungi may form mutualistic relationships with plants, algae, cyanobacteria, and animals. All these relationships have great ecological effects, which is very essential for balancing the ecosystem.
The development of resistance to all kinds of antibiotics in the sensitive bacterial pathogens is a major challenge to infectious disease medicine. The astonishing effects of antibiotics and origin of the genes associated with resistance has been a long mystery. There is growing evidence that the genes that make up this environmental resistome have the potential to be transformed to pathogens and indeed there is some evidence that clinically relevant resistance genes have originated in environmental microbes. Understanding the extent of environmental resistome and its mobilization into pathogenic bacteria is essential for the management and discovery of antibiotics. INTRODUCTION Antibiotics are organic substances produced by microorganisms,
Topic Food Microbiology Food microbiology studies the role of microorganisms in foods. It includes aspects of microbial ecology in food as well as the use of microorganisms for production of ingredients and foods. Moreover, some microorganisms represent a major challenge for public health due to their ability to cause diseases. Food preservation aims at inactivating and controlling the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, insuring shelf-stable and healthy foods. Thus, continuous efforts between food industries, governments, and society have been made to improve statistical sampling tools and microbiological methods in order to understand the mechanisms that affect the fate of microorganisms in foods.
Some organisms that can bioremediate are bacteria, fungi, and fast plants. There are also a variety of different methods of bioremediation. This includes phytoremediation, which is the manner which plants removing toxins from the environment and mycoremediation is used by fungi to eliminate toxins and harmful substances from the environment. For bioremediation, it 's harmless and helpful in many ways. However, some organisms are good or bad when they bioremediate.