Expected Utility Theory
Expected utility theory refers to the formulating of a decision over another that may be presented; generally decided upon through the analysing and assessment of associated risks and outcomes of one choice over another (Pettigrew 2015, pp. 798-9; Shaban 2005, p. 4). The theory of expected utility can be used in many different contexts, an example is the comparison of two outcomes by the risks and possible side effects that each may have to determine the best outcome or one that outweighs the presented risks (Fishburn 2013, pp. 1-2; Pettigrew 2015, p. 799). Expected utility theory is commonly expected in nursing behaviour, it mostly applies to patient care and treatment and is used in day-to-day decision-making (McKenna, …show more content…
4-5). The benefits of this skill greatly impact the patient, as having a nurse to critically analyse possible treatments and care options around a single patient’s situation ensures a patient-centred care approach and effective treatment (Standing 2010, pp. 115-6; Wu 1996, pp. 9-10). While expected utility theory in nursing is useful in some cases there may come times where decisions are made with a bias and therefore renders the theory inappropriate (Wu 1996, pp. 9-10). An example, could be a nurse who had a bad experience with a particular treatment and does not neutrally compare it to other treatments; this incorporation of physiological thinking can influence a pathway decision that may not necessarily be an accurate approach to a patient’s situation (Pettigrew 2015, pp. 806-7; Wu 1996, pp. …show more content…
105). Effectual clinical judgement enables a nurse to clearly identify changes in patients and assessments through past experiences and knowledge; through analysing and evaluating objective and subjective data allows for a judgment to be made that will help prevent or reverse a deteriorating patient (Alfaro-LeFevre 2016, p. 105). Each nurse has a different level of expertise and knowledge that makes clinical judgement very individual and unique (Cappelletti, Engel & Prentice 2014, p. 4). When making a clinical judgment a nurse must ensure they stay within their scope of practice, maintain professionalism, are aware of their legal obligations and understand their workplace policies (Alfaro-LeFevre 2016, pp. 105-6). Limitations of the theory social judgment are complacently or over-involvement where one’s judgment leads to an intervention that may go against legal duties, a healthcare professionals scope of practice or workplace policy due to ease (Alfaro-LeFevre 2016, p. 106). Most importantly, clinical judgement can cross and blur to making a diagnosis rather than a plan of care, this action is out of the scope of a registered nurse and can put the patient at risk (Gonda & Hales 2014, p. 115). Overall, clinical judgement is a fundamental element of nursing, experienced nurses are able to utilise the theory most extensively while
(Cherry, B. & Jacob, S, 2010) For[b3] a nursing student at the Barry University Nursing is utilizing clinical judgment as a prerequisite of care to facilitate people to get better, sustain, or recuperate health, and to accomplish the promising quality of life, irrespective of disability or
Healthcare ethics involves making well researched and considerate decisions about medical treatments, while taking into consideration a patient's beliefs and wishes regarding all aspects of their health. The healthcare industry has regard for the issues surrounding the welfare of their patients. Doctors, nurses, and other professionals who have the ability to affect a patient's health are all forced to make ethical decisions on a daily basis. I believe the result of ability to pay versus quality of care comes into ethical question in today’s society.
Virtuous physicians always asses the decision making capacity and the competence of their patients to make sure they have adequate capacity to make their own decisions, especially for patients who refuse specific treatment, have mental illness, or have specific factors that impair their ability to make decision( _1). What make a patient competent to make a decision? , and do depressed people lose their competence and their decisional capacity? . Depression is a common side effect of cancer (2), and cancer treatment require a lot of important decisions that patients need to make which are very significant in determining their future, and respecting patient will is fundamental in term of autonomy, but what if the patient refuse the treatment, if the doctor consider him as non-autonomous he also will think about his duty in non-maleficence and about his responsibility in supporting and respecting patient wishes.
As a result, I will focus on the machines on the patient, but also the patients on the machine. Conclusion Ethical decision-making begins with a nurse aspiring to become a nurse leader. A nurse leader cannot provide the best care for a patient without proper communication. Communication allows the patient, nurse, and other healthcare team members to work coherently for the best plan of care.
Nursing practice requires both critical thinking and clinical reasoning. Critical thinking is the process of deliberate higher level thinking to define a patient’s problem, examine the evidence-based practice in caring for the patient’s, and make options in the delivery of optimal care. Critical thinking involves the demarcation of statements of fact, judgment, and opinion. The progression of critical thinking requires the nurse to think imaginatively, use reflection, and engage in logical thinking (Alfaro-LeFevre, 2013). Critical thinking is a vital skill needed for the recognition of patient’s problems and the execution of interventions to endorse effectual care outcomes (Bittencourt & Crossetti, 2012).
Military Nurse’s Dilemma Chi Tiet University of Michigan - Flint Nurses are a group of professionals who faces a variety of ethical dilemmas while working. Therefore, these dilemmas cannot only impact on their personalities but also affect their patients. However, ethical dilemmas are argumentative and difficult to deal with, so there is no “right” or “wrong” answer for them. In a military nurse’s dilemma, a military RN is ordered to force feeding a terrorist prisoner while he is undergoing interrogation, and the prisoner is on a hunger strike protesting. The nurse is torn, but fearing of reprisal if orders are disobeyed, so the nurse is appalled at the over-riding a patient’s wish by force feeding him agains his wish.
It is a systematic method that utilizes knowledge, measures, and environmental analysis to produce the most ideal solution. Each decision is analyzed based on its possible consequences with an emphasis on short and long-term solutions. These processes require ample amounts of information, time, and people. While quality solutions are produced, the willful choice model does not allow for flexibility regarding environmental changes such as technology and healthcare policy. Internal changes including turnover also negatively impact the rational decision process.
Critical thinking is a complex reasoning process largely defined as the use of purposeful, shrewd judgment that involves the development and effective exploitation of multiple dimensions of cognition to interpret and analyze a situation and arrive at and act on a suitable conclusion or solution (Facione, 2013). Thus, CT involves higher-order reasoning and evaluation (Facione, 2013). Expanded nursing roles have
Although there were numerous beneficial experiences for the Consumer through the supported decision-making process, the deterioration in mental state and the concern relating to exposure of vulnerability and openness to manipulation by others could not be overlooked (Office of the Public Advocate Systems Advocacy, 2014). Dignity of risk relates to the Consumers right be able to make decisions that can involve a level of risk, however the duty of care of the primary nurse and treating team was to ensure that safeguards are in place to minimise risk of harm to the Consumer and/or others that may be effected by the decision made (Victoria Government Department of Human Services,
Information processing theory The information processing theory is a structure which rationalises how people obtain; process and store information and knowledge (Tangen & Borders 2017, p. 99). The Information processing theory involves the clinical reasoning cycle and the information processing model. The clinical reasoning cycle is a model which guides nurses and other health practitioners in making clinical judgements (Levett-Jones 2018, p. 4).
All in all this is a tough decision, especially for the nurses because they are faced with ethical dilemmas on a daily basis and it’s hard to make the right decision while trying to advocate for the patient at the same time. (Poikkeus
11/23/2015 Florence Nightingale 1. Analyze the Applicability of the Theory a. Structure • This theory is based upon the concept of environment and 13 sub-concepts, which can be manipulated to prevent diseases. • The metaparadigms are well defined; however, the 13 canons/sub-concepts are not described that well. Hence lacking structure and clarity.
Thus, critical thinking is something that is self-regulatory and purposeful judgment, a reflective, reasoning an interactive method for making judgment regarding what to do or believe in. from nursing perspective, critical thinking is the cognitive engine which drives the critical judgment and knowledge development in nursing (Meunier, 2003). The experimental model for reflective decision making is mainly grounded and matched from holistic clinical contexts and holistic patient centered care where it is delivered. This needs nurses to apply wide range of practical, observational, emotional and interpersonal skills, that is not restricted to scientific research and theory whereas applicable to patient care. Such holistic observation of reflective decision making is often supported from multiple intelligence theory (Gardner, 1987), that mainly identified spatial-visual, linguistic, logical-mathematical, intrapersonal and interpersonal forms, bodily-kinesthetic and musical-auditory intelligence forms completing wide range of skills.