In this experiment, 9-fluorenone, a ketone, was reduced to fluorenol, an alcohol. The product was then identified using melting point and IR data, and percent yield was calculated. Reduction is one of the two processes that occur during a redox reaction, and it involves the gain of an electron by one of the species. The other species in the reaction loses an electron, and is by definition oxidized. In this experiment, fluorenone, the oxidizing agent, was reduced, and sodium borohydride, the reducing agent, was oxidized. In this experiment, hydride reducing agents were used, since hydrides have spare electrons that they can donate to other compounds. Two popular hydride reducing agents, lithium aluminum hydride and sodium borohydride, were considered for this experiment. Since hydride reducing agents were used in this reaction, the reaction would have been extremely sensitive to proton sources, since …show more content…
This would be an excellent yield if it all indeed consisted of fluorenol, but given that -OH peaks were observed in the IR, and that a good yield for this reaction was around 60%, it is possible that this percent is artificially high, and that some of this yield consisted of impurities like water and methanol that had not evaporated away. Of the product that was lost, some was lost due to bad filtration technique, as some of the product was observed to have passed through the filter paper, and into the flask. Some of the product may have also clung to the vial, as the precipitate was difficult to remove from the vial in its entirety. In order to improve this yield, more care could have been taken while removing product from the vial, and during filtration, ensuring that the filter paper was sufficiently wet and no product passed through. As some error most likely occurred due to impurities, inflating the percent yield, the product could have been allowed to dry
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Tn 4351 was originally isolated from bacteroides fragilis  . The transposon was successfully introduced into Cytophaga succinicans, Flavobacterium meningosepticum, Flexibacter canadiansis, Flexibacter strain SFI and Sporocytophaga myxococcoides by conjugation . Tn 4351carries two antibiotic resistance gene. One of the codes for resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin which is expressed in bactroides but not in E.Coli. The other gene codes for resistance in tetracycline and is expressed in aerobically grpwn E. coli, but not in anaerobically grpwn E. coli or in bacteroides.
1. Identify the range of senses involved in communication • Sight (visual communication), Touch (tactile communication), Taste, Hearing (auditory communication), Smell (olfactory communication) 2. Identify the limited range of wavelengths and named parts of the electromagnetic spectrum detected by humans and compare this range with those of THREE other named vertebrates and TWO named invertebrates. Figure 1: the electromagnetic spectrum source: www.ces.fau.edu Vertebrates Human Japanese Dace Fish Rattlesnake Zebra Finch Part of electromagnetic spectrum detected ROYGBV (visible light) detected by light sensitive cells in the eye called rods and cones.
The goal of the experiment is to synthesize a bromohexane compound from 1-hexene and HBr(aq) under reflux conditions and use the silver nitrate and sodium iodide tests to determine if the product is a primary or secondary hydrocarbon. The heterogeneous reaction mixture contains 1-hexene, 48% HBr(aq), and tetrabutylammonium bromide and was heated to under reflux conditions. Heating under reflux means that the reaction mixture is heated at its boiling point so that the reaction can proceed at a faster rate. The attached reflux condenser allows volatile substances to return to the reaction flask so that no material is lost. Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst.
This was proved by utilizing the IR spectrum to verify the C =O was not in the final product as it lacked the 1640 cm-1 peak. The melting point of 113-115 degrees C proved that the final product obtained was the E-Stilbene. The TLC plate proved that the E and the Z product was produced, show cased by the double intensity of the DCM spot to the final product’s spot, both which had an Rf of 0.92. The double intensity proved that both products were produced, but through heating and filtering, the Z-Stilbene was
Purpose The purpose of the experiment was to determine the molar mass of unknown solute number 1. This was done by using colligative properties of solutions specifically, freezing point depression. Colligative properties depend on the number of molecules that are present in the solution rather than the nature of the molecules . This fact is useful because knowing this allows one to use the properties of the number of molecule in the solution without needing to worry too much about the nature of the molecules.
The purpose of this experiment was to perform a bromination reaction that converts cyclohexane to trans-1,2-dibromocyclohexane. To do this, 1 mL of 30% hydrogen peroxide was mixed with 3 mL of bromic acid in a round bottom flask containing a spin vane. The solution turned from clear to orange, dark red. The color change is a useful indicator to identified whether reaction was completed before moving to another step. Next, 1 mL of cyclohexene was pipet into this mixture, which changed the solution from red to orange and eventually yellow.
The decomposition of NaHCO3 is an example of Prevention within Green Chemistry principles because all solid waste in this experiment is collected and used again. The only gaseous wastes generated by the reaction in the experiment are carbon dioxide and water, which are benign (Lab 3). The decomposition reaction of NaHCO3, generates virtually no waste, therefore less hazardous chemical syntheses. The byproducts of the reaction are gaseous CO2 and H2O which possess little or no toxicity to human health and the environment, because of the amounts released in this experiment. (Lab 3).
The purpose of this experiment was to learn about metal hydride reduction reactions. Therefore, the sodium borohydride reduction of the ketone, 9-fluorenone was performed to yield the secondary alcohol, 9-fluorenol. Reduction of an organic molecule usually corresponds to decreasing its oxygen content or increasing its hydrogen content. In order to achieve such a chemical change, sodium borohydride (NaBH4) is used as a reducing agent. There are other metal hydrides used in the reduction of carbonyl groups such as lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4).
INTRODUCTION A gas chromatograph (GC) can be utilized to analyze the contents of a sample quantitatively or in certain circumstances also qualitatively. In the case of preparative chromatography, a pure compound can be extracted from a mixture. The principle of gas chromatography can be explained as following: A micro syringe is used to inject a known volume of vaporous or liquid analyte into the head or entrance of a column whereby a stream of an inert gas acts a carrier (mobile phase). The column acts as a separator of individual or chemically similar components.
Unknown Lab Report Unknown # 25 By: Jenna Riordan March 19, 2018 Bio 2843 1. Introduction Microbiology is the study of microorganisms found in all different environments throughout Earth, from the hot thermal vents at the bottom of the ocean to the ice at the top of a mountain.
Furthermore, the melting point of the experiment was obtained to be 151-154 ºC, which included the theoretical melting point of 153 ºC between the experimental melting point range. Introduction: Redox reactions are very important in organic chemistry and they involve transfer of electrons from one molecule to another. Oxidation occurs when a carbon atom becomes bonded to a more electronegative atom, causing the electron density on carbon atom to decrease (McMurray, 2012). That was the part that our experiment focused.
To analyze the acetanilide product of the reaction, 1H NMR and IR were used. Results, Discussions, and Conclusions In this experiment, acetanilide was synthesized via nucleophilic acyl substitution from both acetic anhydride and aniline. During this reaction, aniline acts as the nucleophile and acyl (CH3CO-) group from acetic anhydride acts as the electrophile.
In this experiment, it was possible to produce the major products from bromination of acetanilide and aniline. 0.075g of 4-bromoacetanilide and 0.156g of 2,4,6-tribromoanilne were collected from bromination of 0.07g acetanilide and 0.05g aniline with the percent yield of 67.57% and 88.1% respectively. At the end of the experiment, to prove the formation of the major products, melting point of the products were measured. The melting point of the product from the bromination of acetanilide was 164.8-168.50c, which is in the range of the melting point of 4-bromoacetanilide, 165-1690c, as reported on the Chemical Book, CAS Database List (chemicalbook.com). The melting point of the product from the bromination of aniline was 119.8-121.90c, which is in the range of the melting point of 2,4,6-tribromoaniline, 120-1220c, as indicated on PubChem, Open Chemistry Database (pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov).