Introduction Chromatography is the technique of separating of mixtures based on their intermolecular forces. It separates according to their adsorption differences. Intermolecular forces make molecules bind on the solid surfaces; this process is referred to as the absorption. A molecule undergoes desorption process when it moves from the solid surface into the solution. The different rates between desorption and adsorption are applied in the chromatography methods for separation of mixtures.
Distillation Distillation is used to remove impurities from a mixture – one component of which must be a liquid. Boiling points are utilized in determining the identity of the unknowns. Types of distillation include
TLC, NMR, and IR spectroscopy were used throughout the process to identify ferrocene and acetylferrocene in addition to evaluating the levels of purity. Evidence: The objective of our experiments was to prepare acetylferrocene from ferrocene. The overall reaction was carried out using 6.1 equivalents of liquid acetic anhydride to 1.8 equivalents of phosphoric acid and concluded with an aqueous workup with NaOH. The initial reaction mixture containing ferrocene, acetic anhydride, and phosphate acid was mixed on a hot stir plate. During this period, reflux was observed, and the mixture appeared dark brown in color.
3. To purify and identify the product, recrystallization is used in order to purify the product, then melting point and TLC techniques are used to identify the product. Theory 4. In nucleophilic substitution reactions, there are two possibilities, either Sn1 or Sn2. In this particular experiment, an Sn2 reaction
Synthesis of ethyl levulinate carried out on the catalytic surface of the composite HEC membrane. A separation layer of composite HEC membrane is capable of selectively permeating water, because HEC is well known hydrophilic polymer. Reaction and separation mechanism of catalytic composite HEC membrane can be explained as follows. Levulinic acid and ethanol were fed at the top of the membrane. Reactants are converted to products in the catalytic surface of the membrane.
 Moisture determination is an important indicator of the fertilizer 's quality. Nutrient content is dependent on the amount of moisture it contains. It is necessary to grind the sample so that fineness desired for the experiment is achieved. In this experiment, gravimetric method of analysis was used. Gravimetric analysis is a method that involves precipitating and weighing the mass to determine how much of a certain substance is present.
In this experiment, Analysis of Gaseous Products, a comparison between the elimination reactions created in the presence of an acidic and basic conditions was observed to be further analyzed through gas-liquid chromatography. These conditions were achieved by acid-catalyzed dehydration of a secondary and primary alcohol and based-induced dehydration of a secondary and primary bromide. As a result of these changing eliminations, gas-liquid chromatography makes it possible to separate and isolate volatile organic compounds to analyze the stereochemistry and regiochemistry of these compounds without decomposing them. Overall, gas-liquid chromatography of these compounds in acidic or basic conditions contributed in the identification and analysis
Solvents hexane, heptane, and methanol have been selected to be used during the experiments. 3.2. Equipment A soxhlet extractor will be used to extract essential oils from the plant material (solid-liquid extraction). A flask will be used to hold the solvents and a condenser will be used to condense the solvent and essential oil mixture. A heating mantle with three heating plates will be used to heat the soxhlet extractor during the experiment.
Introductory Questions Define SPE and explain the role of each of the steps used to prepare the SPE cartridge for the isolation of the analyte. Solid phase extraction (SPE) is an extraction method that uses a liquid and solid phase to isolate a single analyte or a specific type of analyte from a solution. It is usually used to clean up a sample before using a chromatographic or other analytical method to quantify the amount of analyte(s) in the sample.
During the process a mixture is separated into several parts called fractions. Mixtures contain different substance with different boiling points, the differences in boiling points is the main reason fractional distillation is effective. The temperature at which a phase change occurs from liquid to vapor is the boiling point. Fractional distillation Column Fractional distillation column is a fractionating column used for separating a mixture into its various