The goal of the experiment is to synthesize a bromohexane compound from 1-hexene and HBr(aq) under reflux conditions and use the silver nitrate and sodium iodide tests to determine if the product is a primary or secondary hydrocarbon. The heterogeneous reaction mixture contains 1-hexene, 48% HBr(aq), and tetrabutylammonium bromide and was heated to under reflux conditions. Heating under reflux means that the reaction mixture is heated at its boiling point so that the reaction can proceed at a faster rate. The attached reflux condenser allows volatile substances to return to the reaction flask so that no material is lost. Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst.
In addition, phenolphthalein was added as an indicator. The aliquots were titrated against sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution until end point was reached, after which volume of NaOH consumed was recorded. The value of the rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0002 s-1. The experiment was then repeated with 40/60 V/V isopropanol/water mixture and a larger value of k = 0.0007 s-1 was obtained. We concluded that the rate of hydrolysis of (CH3)3CCl is directly proportional to water content in the solvent mixture.
Clean up and return the materials. Paragraph 3 In my bar graph I presented the relationship between the temperature of water and an Alka-Seltzer’s rate of reaction time when dropped into the water. The data proves that if the temperature of water increases, then the reaction rate of an Alka-Seltzer tablet will increase as well. I presented the data of the temperatures; 21°C, 41°C, and 28°C for each four trials and their averages. The graph presents the trend of the rate of reaction decreasing when the temperature is lower.
When tin chloride is added to the solution, Sn2+ took away positive charged ions; Fe3+ to Fe2+ (2Fe3+(aq) + Sn2+(aq) → 2Fe2+(aq) + Sn4+(aq)). This took away Fe3+ from the solution, causing the equilibrium to change to the reactants to balance the concentration of Fe2+. The solution turned a lighter color to increased rate of the reverse reaction. When AgNO3 was added to the solution, the silver nitrate broke down into Ag+ and
In this experiment, racemic 2-methylcyclohexanone was reduced using sodium borohydride as a nucleophile to give a diastereomeric mixture of cis and trans secondary alcohols. The products were analyzed for purity using IR spectroscopy and gas chromatography. 1.2 g of 2-methylcyclohexanone and 10 mL of methanol were combined in a flask and cooled in an ice bath. Two 100 mg portions of sodium borohydride were added to the flask and stirred. 5 mL of 3M sodium hydroxide, 5 mL of de-ionized water, and 15 mL of hexane were added to the reaction flask and stirred.
The Effect of Alkaseltzer Tablets on the Boiling Point of Water Zackary Zambrano Chemistry Honors Mrs.Gregor Period-3 10/5/16 Introduction Statement of Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to see whether or not alkaseltzer tablets have an effect on the boiling point of 100 mL of water. The control is just water, the variable groups are 100 mL of water with one tablet, and 100 mL of water with two tablets. “What exactly is boiling? The technical definition is what occurs when the vapor pressure of a liquid is greater than or equal to the atmospheric pressure.”(Lopez,k) Simply put water, boils when enough energy is released to cause bubbles and then turn to vapor. When water begins to boil, the water will continue to boil at
In order to determine the value of X, the hydrate is heated on a burner to undergo decomposition reaction to be decomposed into CuSO4 and water vapor. Water vapor is evaporated during the reaction, leaving CuSO4 crystals, which is supposed to be white, in remain. By weighing the mass of CuSO4 and the mass difference of substance before and after the reaction, the mole of CuSO4 and H2O can be calculated. The value of X can thus be determined by calculating the mole ratio of CuSO4 and H2O. In the lab, through calculation, the value of X is determined to equal to 5.361211229, which is close to 5.
When the bicarbonate ions collide with hydrogen ions, it produces carbonic acid. Carbonic acid, then decomposes and creates water plus carbon dioxide. The water and carbon dioxide are incorporated because of temperature. Temperature is the measure of the average heat or thermal
The average equivalent mass for the acid is 135g/mol H+. 3. The answer obtained in Question #2 is the equivalent mass of the acid rather than the molar mass because the acid could be polyprotic, which would mean the equivalent mass is different from the molar mass since it is depending on moles of H+ per molecule, and there could be multiple moles of H+ ions in one mole of a molecule. 4. The KHP and the acid samples must be dried, because there would still be extra water which would skew the molarity.
The theoretical yield for Zinc Sulfide is 0.49 grams but the actual yield is 0.38 grams. So if 0.38 is divided by 0.49 and multiplied by 100 then the percent yield for Zinc Sulfide would be 77.6%. When it comes to Sodium Chloride, the theoretical yield is 0.58 grams and the actual yield is 0.45 grams. So when 0.45 grams is divided by 0.58 grams and multiplied by 100, the percent yield would be 77.5% of Sodium chloride. The actual yield is directly taken from the mass of the products in the experiment while the theoretical yield is determined by using stoichiometric calculations.
Solution is a mixture of 2 or more kinds of molecules or atoms or ions that is homogenous (meaning uniform throughout) 2. Solute is what is being dissolved 3. Solvent is doing the dissolving B: Water’s Unusual Properties 1. Moderating Temperature: Specific Heat A. Specific Heat is the amount of energy required to rise the temperature of a substance 1 Celsius degree C: Hydrophobic & Hydrophilic Molecules 1.
This makes buffer 1 a greater buffer compared to buffer 2. This is not true for Buffer 2 because the because NaOH was added to acetic acid to form acetate ions as conjugate base: The graph 1 shows the buffer capacity of buffer 1 is at pH 4.559 as it takes about 7.5 mL to change the pH. Whereas the buffer capacity of buffer 2 is at pH 4.756, which takes 5.9 mL to change the pH. These number shows buffer 1 has higher buffer capacity. The pH at 4.559 is significant as once the pH exceeded this value, the buffer will become ineffective.