The purpose of this lab was to change pennies from copper to silver to gold, like alchemists have attempted to do in history. Through the data and observations gathered throughout this experiment, it can be concluded that the pennies were not changed into a different element. For example, the density of the penny from 2005; which was the penny that was experimented on to see whether or not it could turn into silver; was 4.62 g/cm3 before the experiment and 4.89 g/cm3 by the end of the experiment. If this copper penny really would have turned into silver, then the density of the penny would be 10.49 g/cm3; which is the density of silver; by the end of the experiment. The penny may have turned silver in color, but this was only because it was plated in the zinc that was added to the beaker of water in the experiment.
In this week’s lab we had to determine the density of a quarter, penny, and dime. My question was “How does is each coin?” Density is the amount of mass in an object. To find the density of each coin in this lab, we used a triple beam balance to find each coin’s mass and a graduated cylinder to find their volumes. With all this information, I can now form a hypothesis.
The phenomena of our paper airplane lab was by adding mass to a paper airplane it affected the time span it flew. The mass that was added in our experiment was paperclips, the manipulative variable or the change. I observed during this experiment how the more mass we added the quicker the plane fell to the ground. To begin, we added no paperclips, thus our plane flew for the longest, at an average time of 2.31 seconds. Our 2nd and 3rd trials which had 1 and 2 paperclips caused our time to decrease to 1.6 and 1.8 seconds. Our last trial with the most mass of 3 paper clips lasted the shortest amount of time, only 1.43 seconds.Our responding variable was the time flown and the controlled variable was who threw the airplane
1)The purpose of this lab was to compare the physical properties of different types of solids and how the properties of solids are determined by their intermolecular forces and their intramolecular bonds. Then we were to classify each type of solid as either ionic, metallic, non-polar molecular, polar molecular, or network. Paraffin wax classified as a non-polar molecular, Silicon dioxide was classifies as a network, Sodium chloride was classified as ionic, Sucrose was classified as polar molecular and Tin was classified as metallic.
Abstract – Methyl trans-cinnamate is an ester that contributes to the aroma of strawberry. It can be synthesized by an acid-catalyzed Fischer esterification of a methanol and trans-cinnamic acid under reflux. The solution was extracted to obtain the organic product, and evaporated residual solvent The yield was 68%, but there is some conflicting data regarding the purity. The melting point, IR, GC-MS indicate a highly pure desired product whereas 1H NMR shows there are unreacted reagents still present.
Reaction 2: when sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is added to copper (II) nitrate (Cu(NO3)2), a double displacement reaction will occur. Copper and sodium will displace each other to create copper (II) hydroxide and sodium nitrate.
In this experiment, four white powders were tested. After visually inspecting the powders, Powder A appeared to be white, lumpy, and possessed no lust, Powder B appeared to be white, soft, and lumpy, Powder C appeared to look smooth, white, and soft, and Powder D appeared to be lumpy, solid, and whitish-yellow. The materials that were utilized in this lab were cornstarch, baking powder, baking soda, powdered sugar, spot plate, scoopula, dropper, water, vinegar, iodine, toothpicks, and paper towels. The physical property that was observed was solubility, the ability of something to be dissolved, and the chemical property that was observed, reactivity, is the tendency of a substance to undergo chemical change. Knowing both chemical and physical properties of the substances is important because they give more information about the identities of the substances and back up observations
The percent recovery of the copper was calculated using the equation, percent recovery = (the mass of the copper recovered after all the chemical reactions/the initial mass of the copper) x 100. The amount of copper that was recovered was 0.32 grams and the initial mass of the copper was 0.46 grams. Using the equation, (0.32 grams/0.46 grams) x 100 equaled 69.56%. The amount of copper recovered was slightly over two-thirds of the initial amount.
We started by putting 100 mL of water into a coffee cup calorimeter (a polystyrene cup inside another polystyrene cup as an insulator), a magnetic stir bar was added and using the program LabProTM the
The mystery powder (#5) is the baking powder. My partners and I figured this out because the physical and chemical properties of both of the substances are very similar. For example, both powders are not soluble in water, and they both turned red when they reacted with the universal indicator.
An endospore is a dormant of a bacterial cell. It is a non-reproductive structure that ensures survival of a bacterium through stressful environmental conditions. Unknown #76, using aseptic technique, was inoculated to a nutrient sporulation medium (NSM) plate. This concerns a selective medium that increases the initiation of endospore production. A spore-former would have green-pigmented endospore cells when looked at under the microscope. From the growth on the NSM, I smeared it aseptically to a wet slide. Slide was then left to be air-dried for about 10 minutes. It was important to heat fix the slide using a micro incinerator. The succeeding steps had to be taken with caution because the primary stain, malachite green, is toxic. Under the hood, the slide was covered with a properly cut size of paper towel. The slide was then stained and left to steam with malachite green. It was continuously followed up by applications of the stain so it may remain moist for 10 minutes. The slide was then rinsed and safranin was again used as a counterstain. Using oil immersion objective lens of the microscope, unknown #76 had only reddish-pink cells without any signs of spore formation. Thus the given unknown is a non-spore former. Bacillus subtilis was used for positive control and Escherichia coli for negative control for endospore
Pour a sufficient amount of water (about 16 oz) into a small pot and place on the stove at high heat.
A milk-based, litmus broth tube is incubated and observed after 48 hours. Observations include lactose fermentation without gas as well as with gas, the reduction of litmus, casein protein coagulation and casein and protein hydrolysis. These characteristics were all determined based on the color of the solution and the production of a curd, the curds density and the production of a gas. To determine the density of the curd, the tube was slightly turned to see rather or not it was mobile or concentrated towards the bottom.
Chemistry is one thing that makes us understand and gives us reasons of why certain reactions gives certain results. In this experiment we will be illustrating the reaction between baking powder and vinegar and see what happens to the balloon that is attached to it. Hypothetically the reaction of the vinegar and baking powder will produce carbon dioxide which will inflate the balloon. If the more vinegar may happen that when more vinegar is added to the baking powder it may produce more carbon dioxide thus the balloons diameter increases. This reaction is an acid base reaction thus results expected to show some carbon dioxide.
Silicone. I’m sure you have all heard of this substance before. But it’s more than an element on the periodic table, we actually encounter it in our everyday lives whether you like it or not. Let’s bring in a show of hands, who here has ever used moisturizer? Hmm. okay who here has ever used any kind of makeup? Last but not least, who here has ever used shampoo? Sorry to break it to you but unless you spend more than $50 on a single bottle of shampoo, silicone is in your everyday lives.