For that reason, I will look at his breakdown of the four levels of reality and discuss how he uses it to unify the three paradigms. Moreover, I show what paradigms are, how they came about and why they are used in science. This will give a better understanding as to why paradigms need to be unified, particularly in sociology. The three major paradigms of social reality. How they came about and why Kuhn developed the theory of a paradigmatic science because he did not agree with the premise of inductive reasoning and
Durkheim – he was a sociologist social psychologist and philosopher. He was born on 15 April 1858. He is also known a the father of sociology. He was concerned wih how societies could maintain their integrity in modern era where traditional values could have any value. He helped I the establishment on sociology as a new academic deciplain ,he also wrote about the effect of laws religion education forces on social integration and last with the practical implication of scientific knowledge.
The Enlightenment continued the ideas of the Scientific Revolution in which there was a great emphasis on human reasoning and how it could answer questions about nature; in the Enlightenment, people believed that human reasoning could be used to solve any issues in society or politics. The idea of a social contract, in which there was an agreement between the people and the ruler which helped ensure that the ruler would not abuse his power, was brought about by Thomas Hobbes; many leader went on to adopt these principles and became enlightened despots. Many of these ideas led to political changes and revolutions The American Revolution followed a belief in which there should be, “no taxation without representation.” The American Revolution was heavily influenced by the Enlightenment ideas. Americans believed that the governmental decisions
When Auguste Comte coined the term ‘sociology' to refer to a positivistic or scientifically proven approach to study human society and social life, he gave rise to the central idea of the structural functionalist perspective on deviance and conformity (Thompson & Gibbs, 2017). This sociological perspective provides a macro-level analysis that focuses on the structure of society and the roles of social institutions such as government and family, to provide its members with stable patterns of social structures (Goode, 2008). Many people tend to associate negative implications when they come across deviant actions —any behavior such as crime that breaks from commonly accepted norms or expectations— and assume that society would be better off without
Theory first saw its development as a mere sociological theory that intended to better explain social patterns, such as values and ideals, as well as its development over time. Due to the lack of explanatory contextualization in previous research, this section is dedicated to deepen the reader’s understanding over the theory and how it evolved over time. Further research may be drawn from this point onwards, to why the theory is still today more of an explanatory nature, rather than exploratory. The formulation of a possible generational gap was firstly mentioned by Mentré (1920), in his book Les Generations Sociales. The author tries to understand the social and intellectual differences that structure society into patterns over a certain
It further explores the significance of the revolution and its significance to date towards our system of thinking and interaction. This literature also examines the French revolution and how human nature was viewed. It elaborates on how human beings can be self-interested, savage and yet socially conscious or kind. It also explores how we see the effects of the revolution and its relevance. By drawing on a variety of sources, the paper shows how we relate to the enlightenment concept of humanism.
The shift from the belief of Adam and Eve being the first man and woman created by God, to the Darwinian Theory of Evolution, can be described as paradigm altering. This shift altered our consciousness of man, how he came into existence and the evolutionary steps to achieve the present form. Sociology, is the study of human’s social behavior. As we have already seen, a person’s social behavior is to a great extent dependent on his surroundings. A shift in a person’s consciousness is inevitable when he moves from a rural village to an urban city.
According to Indergraard (2007), industrialization is “the process by which an economy shifts from an agricultural to a manufacturing base during a period of sustained change and growth, eventually creating a higher standard of living”. Within sociology, the three founding fathers, particularly Karl Marx and Émile Durkheim, were interested in studying what the causes of industrialization and the consequences of it on the development of society. This essay will compare the ways in which Marx and Durkheim shared similar ideas about industrialisation within society as well as contrast the aspects of their theories which have different ideological roots and conclusions. The essay with then go on to conclude that whilst there were some key differences
The existing research traditions that I have looked at to outline are Positivism, Critical Theory and Functionalism. In Positivism the discipline origins are rooted in philosophy, poetry, social science and natural science. Auguste Comte was seen as a founding father in Philosophy, sociology and positivism. Positivism came about post French revolution and Comte saw it as a new social order to remedy to what had just happened in the French revolution. Its basis lies in the sciences, looking at scientific methods to uncover laws and study society.
For Luhmann, a theory of society refers to a sociology theory which is able to account for all societal phenomena. Luhmann thought sociology is influenced by theory crisis. Empirical research’s, though it has been successful in increasing knowledge, has not been able to produce a unified theory for the discipline. Luhmann tried to revitalize the idea of a universal sociological theory, which would allow sociology to describe modern society more precise in all its dimensions. Luhmann believed that sociology could progress with a new grand theory, theoretical edifice.